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Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

"urine used as a detergent," 1570s, from chamber (n.) in the "privy" sense + lye.

Usage examples of "chamber-lye".

But if the manure is poor, consisting largely of straw, it will be very desirable to make it richer by mixing with it bone-dust, blood, hen-droppings, woollen rags, chamber-lye, and animal matter of any kind that you can find.