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cardiac output

n. the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time; "a resting adult has a cardiac output of about three quarts a minute"

Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and $\dot Q_{c}$), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle, per unit time. CO values can be represented using many physical units, such as dm/min and L/min.

Because cardiac output is related to the quantity of blood delivered to various parts of the body, it is an important indicator of how efficiently the heart can meet the demands of the body. For instance, infections are correlated with high CO and heart failure with low CO.

Along with stroke volume (SV), cardiac output is a global blood flow parameter of interest in hæmodynamics – the study of the flow of blood under external forces. The factors affecting stroke volume and heart rate also affect cardiac output. The figure to the right illustrates this dependency and lists some of these factors. A detailed hierarchical illustration is provided in a subsequent figure.

There are many methods of measuring CO, both invasively and non-invasively, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. No standard or reference measurement against which all of these methods can be compared exists.

Usage examples of "cardiac output".

There was also a large TV screen for basic operative parameters: electrocardiogram, peripheral arterial pressure, respirations, cardiac output, central venous pressure, rectal temperature.

However, by measuring heart rate and the shape of the arterial pulse (both easily done) a computer can calculate cardiac output and can perform these calculations continuously over a period of days, if necessary.

If a physician needs to know cardiac output, he can have this information.

There is reason to believe, however, that cardiac output will be useful in a variety of ways, as will other derived information.

His blood pressure is up and his cardiac output has increased, all signs of adrenaline stimulation.

It affected the renal blood supply, increasing cardiac output without increasing the need for cardiac oxygen consumption.

He scanned the entries: reticulocyte counts, red blood cell fragility figures, plasma volume, blood and urine electrolytes, protein counts, glucose levels, heart size, bone strength, calcium levels, cardiac output capabilities .

He dredged his memory for the details of how it worked on the renal blood supply, increasing cardiac output without increasing the need for oxygen consumption.