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Camba is a word historically used in Bolivia to refer to the indigenous population in the Eastern tropical region of the country, or to those born in the area of Santa Cruz, Beni, and Pando (the Eastern region of Bolivia). Nowadays, the term "Camba" is used predominately to refer to white and mestizo Bolivians largely of Spanish mixed with some Chane and other Amazonian descent born in the eastern lowlands in and around Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

The Camba have been the focus of anthropological studies on ritualized alcohol consumption. Although the Camba frequently drink 180-proof rum (considered laboratory grade in the US) their rates of alcoholism are lower than those found in most cultures.

Colla people, who are the indigenous population that lives in Western Bolivia, have always been in conflict with Camba people due to their different customs, behavior and appearance. Therefore, it's pretty common to hear Camba folks say Colla as a swear word or for insulting the Western population and vice versa.

Camba may also be used as a colloquial term for "person", as in "Who is that person?" translated to "¿Quien es ese camba?" (ignores the ethnicity of the subject and does not change depending on gender as most Spanish nouns do). Such use is predominant in eastern Bolivia.