Belenky, feminine: Belenkaya is a Russian-language surname, typically of people of Jewish origin. In 1972 it was the 14th most common Jewish surname in Moscow and the 16th in Leningrad.
The surname may refer to:
- Valery Belenky, Soviet Azerbaijani/German artistic gymnast
- Abram Belenky, Soviet secret service (Cheka/GPU/NKVD) leader
- Maya Belenkaya, Soviet figure skater