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Bayram or Bairam or Beyram may refer to:

  • Bayram (Turkey), the Turkish word for a festival or celebration
  • Bayrami (Bayramilik and Bayramiye), a Sufi order
  • Public holidays in Azerbaijan
Bayram (Turkey)

Bayram (also spelled "bairam") is the Turkic word (originally from middle Persian paδrām or Sogdian patrām, pedram in modern Persian ) for a nationally-celebrated festival or holiday, applicable to both national (i.e. secular) and religious celebrations. In accordance with this dual applicability, the method with which one determines the yearly timing of Bayrams is different for national and religious holidays.

State holidays in Turkey have set dates under the nationally-used Gregorian Calendar, while the Islamic religious holidays are coordinated and publicly announced in advance by the Government's Presidency of Religious Affairs department according to the Lunar Calendar, and are subsequently accommodated into the national Gregorian Calendar, which results in the dates for religious holidays changing every year with a shift margin of approximately 11 days.

Large scale non-Turkish or non-Islamic traditions and celebrations may similarly be called Bayram, as illustrated by Halloween being referred to as "Cadılar Bayramı" (i.e. "Bayram of Witches"), Easter as "Paskalya Bayramı" (i.e. "Easter Bayram"), Christmas as "Noel Bayramı" (i.e. "Christmas Bayram"), Passover as "Hamursuz Bayramı" ("No-dough{meaning 'yeast'} Bayram"), and Hanukkah as "Yeniden Adanma Bayramı" (i.e. "Renewal/Rededication Bayram"). However, not every special occasion or holiday is referred to as a Bayram, as illustrated by the case of World Health Day, or Liberation of Istanbul, among others.

Likely owing to the enduring Ottoman Turkish influence in the Balkans and parts of South-Eastern Europe, many non-Turkish peoples like Albanian Muslims, Gorani people, Pomaks and Bosniaks, as well as Muslims from the Northern Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Crimea and other Turkic peoples, have similarly adopted the use of the word "Bayram", using the term "Lesser Bairam" to refer to their own Eid al-Fitr celebrations; "Greater Bairam" refers to Eid al Adha.

Bayram (name)

Bayram is both a masculine Turkish given name and a Turkish surname. Notable people with the name include:

  • Hacı Bayram-ı Veli (1352–1430), Turkish Sufi
  • Bairam Khan, advisor and prime minister to Akbar the Great
  • Mohamed Bayram II (1748–1831), Tunisian scholar and cleric of Turkish descent
  • Mahmud Bayram al-Tunisi (1893–1961), Egyptian poet
  • Bayram Şit (born 1930), Turkish Olympic wrestler and trainer
  • Aslı Bayram (born 1981), German actress and model of Turkish descent

Category:Turkish-language surnames