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Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb Alamgir and by his imperial title Alamgir ("world conqueror" or "universe conqueror") and simply referred to as Aurangzeb was the sixth Mughal Emperor and ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707.

Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire temporarily reached its greatest extent. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometres and he ruled over a population estimated as being in the range of 100–150 million subjects, with an annual yearly tribute of £38,624,680 (2,879,469,894 rupees) in 1690 (the highest in the world at that time).

Aurangzeb's policies partly abandoned the legacy of pluralism, which remains a very controversial aspect of his reign and led to the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Rebellions and wars led to the exhaustion of the imperial Mughal treasury and army. He was a strong-handed authoritarian ruler, and following his death the expansionary period of the Mughal Empire came to an end. Nevertheless, the contiguous territory of the Mughal Empire still remained intact more or less until the reign of Muhammad Shah.

Aurangzeb (film)

Aurangzeb is a 2013 Indian action thriller film written and directed by Atul Sabharwal. The film stars Prithviraj Sukumaran in the lead role, along with Arjun Kapoor, Sashaa Agha, Swara Bhaskar in pivotal roles, while Jackie Shroff, Rishi Kapoor, Amrita Singh, Sikander Kher and Kavi Shastri play supporting characters. The film is produced and distributed by Aditya Chopra under his studio Yash Raj Films. The theatrical trailer was unveiled on 3 April 2013, and the film released on 17 May 2013. The film was commercially successful.