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Arunthathiyar is a Scheduled Caste community found in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The term has two distinct usages: for the purposes of the state government's positive discrimination programme, in 2009 it was designated an umbrella term for the Arunthatiyar, Chakkiliyan, Madari, Madiga, Thoti and Adi Andhra (Adi Dravida) communities; while the Office of the Registrar-General, which administrates the census of India, does not recognise all of those communities as one.

The 2001 Census of India reported that there were 771,659 Arunthathiyar in Tamil Nadu, being 6.5 % of the Scheduled Caste population of the state.