Find the word definition


Amulo Lugdunensis (also known as: Amalo, Amulon, Amolo, Amularius) served as Archbishop of Lyons from 841 to 852 A.D. As a Gallic prelate, Amulo is best known for his letters concerning two major themes: Christian-Jewish relations in the Frankish kingdom and the Carolingian controversy over predestination. He was ordained as archbishop in January 841.

Amulo was a disciple of his predecessor Agobard and inherited many of his ideas. Amulo collaborated closely with both Remigius of Lyons, who later succeeded him, and Florus of Lyons who served as scribe for Amulo; hence it is not always clear which of Amulo's letters were actually penned by him. He also worked with Hincmar Archbishop of Reims regarding anti-Jewish policies and the debate with Gottschalk of Orbais over predestination.

Like his predecessor, Amulo was unable to bring about anti-Jewish policies into the Carolingian Empire. However, he actively pursued "a policy of coercion against pro-Jewish Christians," within his diocese, and his sermons were imbued with anti-Jewish teachings. His work was influential during the mid-ninth century - most notably his Contra Judaeos and his involvement in the Council of Paris-Meaux in 845. These decrees were not ratified by Charles the Bald, since his magnates saw them as interfering with the traditional Carolingian policies regarding Jews; the Canons proposed at Paris-Meaux sought to revive earlier Visigothic laws, including Canon LXXIIII which prohibited Christians from "showing favour to Jews." Nevertheless, both Amulo and his predecessor were instrumental in spreading anti-Jewish attitudes in the Carolingean court, which eventually sparked changes in "both exegesis and Canon Law."