Älvsborg is the name of a geographical region in Sweden, which can refer to:
- Älvsborg, Gothenburg, one of 21 boroughs of Gothenburg, Sweden.
- Älvsborg County, a former county of Sweden
- Älvsborg Fortress, a sea fortress at Gothenburg
- Älvsborg Regiment, a former infantry regiment of the Swedish Army
- Västra Götaland County, a current county of Sweden
- Västergötland, a historical province of Sweden
- Dalsland, a historical province of Sweden