Alphesiboea was the name of several characters in Greek mythology:
- Alphesiboea, the mother of Adonis with Phoenix (son of Agenor).
- Alphesiboea, a daughter of Phegeus, who married Alcmaeon. In some versions of this myth, she is called Arsinoe.
- Alphesiboea who, according to Theocritus, was a daughter of Bias, and the wife of Pelias. This character, however, is usually called Anaxibia.
- Alphesiboea, an Indian nymph, who was passionately loved by Dionysus, but could not be induced to yield to his wishes, until the god changed himself into a tiger, and thus compelled her by fear to allow him to carry her across the river Sollax, which from this circumstance received the name of Tigris. With him, she became mother of Medes.