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Akbar (disambiguation)

Akbar 'greater' or 'greatest' is the Arabic elative of kabir "great", as used in the takbir, Allahu Akbar .

Akbar may refer to:

  • Akbar (1542–1605), the third Mughal Emperor.
  • Akbar (name)
  • , a number of ships of the Royal Navy

  • Akbar, Basilan, a municipality in the Philippines

Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, popularly known as Akbar I (, literally "the great"; 15 October 1542– 27 October 1605) and later Akbar the Great ( Urdu: Akbar-e-Azam; literally "Great the Great"), was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the third and one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strived to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.

Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of art and culture. He was fond of literature, and created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Hindustani, Persian, Greek, Latin, Arabic and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, translators, artists, calligraphers, scribes, bookbinders and readers. Holy men of many faiths, poets, architects and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar's courts at Delhi, Agra, and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, letters, and learning. Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterised by Mughal style arts, painting, and architecture. Disillusioned with orthodox Islam and perhaps hoping to bring about religious unity within his empire, Akbar promulgated Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic creed derived from Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity. A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centred on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema and orthodox Muslims.

Akbar's reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history. During his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth. He created a powerful military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the sectarian tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust and loyalty of the native subjects. He had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in native festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation and good-will of his subjects. Thus, the foundations for a multicultural empire under Mughal rule was laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Jahangir.

Akbar (name)

Akbar is both a given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include:

  • Akbar (1542–1605), the third Mughal Emperor.
  • Akbar II (1760–1837), second-to-last of the Mughal emperors of India
  • Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (born 1934), Iranian politician and fourth president of Iran
  • Akbar Khan (1816-1846), Emir of Afghanistan (1842–1845)
  • Akbar Khan (Blind) (born 1962), recipient of India's National Award in 1989
  • Akbar Khan (disambiguation), other people named Akbar Khan
  • Skandor Akbar (1934–2010), ring name of American professional wrestler and manager Jimmy Wehba
  • Hasan Akbar (born 1971), US soldier convicted of the murder of two officers
  • Wahab Akbar (1960–2007), Filipino politician

Fictional characters:

  • One of the comic-strip duo Akbar and Jeff of Life in Hell
  • Admiral Ackbar, Star Wars character