Aeby is a Swiss-German surname, derived from the personal name Adalbert (Albert). Notable people with the surname include:
- Christoph Theodor Aeby (1835–1885), Swiss anatomist and anthropologist. The "closing plate of Aeby" (sic) is mentioned without a specific citation by the comparative neuroanatomist J.B.Johnston in his 1923 paper on the mammalian amygdaloid region, referring to the locus at the medial hemispheric wall that 'closes' the choroidal fissure. He probably was citing C.T.Aeby.
- Jack Aeby (born 1923), American engineer.