Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide. (In the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose.) Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides. Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Some are used as lower-calorie food substitutes for sugar described as artificial sweeteners.
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction only in sugarcane and sugar beet. Sugarcane refers to any of several species of giant grass in the genus Saccharum that have been cultivated in tropical climates in South Asia and Southeast Asia since ancient times. A great expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the establishment of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people, who had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. Sugar beet, a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris, is grown as a root crop in cooler climates and became a major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became available. Sugar production and trade have changed the course of human history in many ways, influencing the formation of colonies, the perpetuation of slavery, the transition to indentured labour, the migration of peoples, wars between sugar-trade–controlling nations in the 19th century, and the ethnic composition and political structure of the New World.
The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day.
Since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is good for human health. Sugar has been linked to obesity, and suspected of, or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration, and tooth decay. Numerous studies have been undertaken to try to clarify the position, but with varying results, mainly because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that do not consume or are largely free of any sugar consumption.
Sugar (American band)
Sugar was an American alternative rock band of the early 1990s. Formed in 1992, they were led by the singer and guitarist Bob Mould (ex- Hüsker Dü), alongside bassist David Barbe (ex-Mercyland) and drummer Malcolm Travis (ex- Human Sexual Response).
Sugar is a class of edible substances.
Sugar may also refer to:
Sugar (System of a Down song)
"Sugar" is a song by Armenian American rock band System of a Down. It was released as a single and EP in May 1999 and was taken from their album System of a Down (1998).
"Sugar" is one of System of a Down's first songs, having initially appeared on their first official demo tape. This song has been played at most System of a Down concerts, and the concerts mostly end with this song.
The song was used in certain World Wrestling Federation (WWF) promos during 1999-2000 and is featured in the game Madden NFL 2010.
Sugar (South Korean band)
Sugar (슈가) was a South Korean girl group. Their 2003 singles Take It Shake It and Real Identity were the opening and ending theme songs respectively for Season 1 of the highly popular anime Kaleido Star. However, they had mediocre success in the South Korean market. Their last album has seen them go through an image and style change, as members have been changed. The album had less cute pop material and instead focused on rock songs and midtempo ballads. However, their albums did not have high sales. Since then, Soo Jin has left the group, and Hwang Jung-eum has gone on to have a solo career. On December 20, 2006, KBS World Radio announced that the group had officially disbanded. All members have since branched into acting and musical efforts.
Sugar (2004 film)
Sugar is a Canadian romantic drama film, released in 2004. The film was directed by John Palmer, and written by Palmer, Todd Klinck and Jaie Laplante based on short stories by Bruce LaBruce.
The film stars Andre Noble as Cliff, a sheltered and insecure suburban teenager being introduced to gay street life by Butch ( Brendan Fehr), a hustler. The film's cast also includes Marnie McPhail, Sarah Polley, Maury Chaykin, Alexander Chapman and Michael Riley.
Noble, who received strong reviews for his performance in Sugar, died just a few weeks after the film's debut.
The film received two nominations at the 2005 Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television's 25th Genie Awards. Klinck, Laplante and Palmer were nominated in the Best Adapted Screenplay category, while Fehr was nominated for Best Supporting Actor.
Sugar is available on DVD in the United States through TLA Video.
Sugar (TV series)
Sugar is a TV cooking show shown on Food Network Canada hosted by Canadian pastry chef Anna Olson. The official show description reads "Anna Olson satisfies sweet cravings with great dessert recipes and guides viewers from making to plating with presentation ideas to dress up any dessert."
Premiered in October 2002, Sugar is a half-hour show which specializes in desserts. Each episode has a theme ingredient. Host Anna Olson makes one simple dessert with the theme ingredient in the first part of the show. During the second and third part, she creates a more elaborate or decadent dessert with the same ingredient. During the last few minutes of the program called the "Switch-Up", Anna re-invents the first dessert with a few tricks and turns it into something more special.
Sugar aired for five seasons on Food Network Canada and its 151 episodes has been syndicated in 40 countries.
Sugar is a free and open source computer desktop environment designed for interactive learning by children. Copyright by SugarLabs. Developed as part of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project, Sugar was the default interface on OLPC XO-1 laptop computers. The OLPC XO-1.5 and later provided the option of either the Gnome or Sugar interfaces.
Sugar is available as a Live CD, as Live USB, a package installable through several Linux distributions
Unlike most other desktop environments, Sugar does not use the " desktop", " folder" and " window" metaphors. Instead, Sugar's default full-screen activities require users to focus on only one program at a time. Sugar implements a journal which automatically saves the user's running program session and allows them to later use an interface to pull up their past works by date, activity used, or file type.
Sugar is a musical with a book by Peter Stone, music by Jule Styne, and lyrics by Bob Merrill. It is based on the film Some Like It Hot, which was adapted by Billy Wilder and I.A.L. Diamond from a story by Robert Thoeren and Michael Logan. It premiered on Broadway in 1972 and was staged in the West End twenty years later.
Sugar (Aloha album)
Sugar is the third full-length album by Aloha. It was released in 2002 on Polyvinyl Records.
Sugar (Ladytron song)
"Sugar" is the first single from the album Witching Hour by electronic music band Ladytron. This song featured on the video game Need for Speed: Carbon and Need for Speed Carbon Own the City. It charted at number 45 in the United Kingdom.
Sugar (Tokio album)
Sugar is the eleventh studio album by Japanese band Tokio. It was released on February 20, 2008. The album peaked at sixth place on the Oricon weekly charts and charted for six weeks.
Sugar (Armand Van Helden song)
"Sugar" is the fifth and final single from American DJ Armand Van Helden's sixth album Nympho. It is written and sung by Jessy Moss.
Sugar (Tonic album)
Sugar is Tonic's second studio album, released in 1999. Released on November 9, 1999 and self-produced by the band itself, the album's title shared the same name as the fifth track on the recording. The creative and collaborative process spanned several geographic locations including Austin, Texas, and a mansion in New Orleans, Louisiana, where actual recording for the album was performed. "Knock Down Walls" and " You Wanted More" were charting singles released off the record, with the latter having first appeared on the soundtrack to the movie American Pie. With Shepard no longer part of the band, Peter Maloney played drums on the album, although Joey Waronker filled in for the single "You Wanted More". Music videos for the songs "You Wanted More" and "Mean to Me" were created as part of the album's promotion. Tonic appeared on the television shows Late Night with Conan O'Brien and "The Martin Short Show" in late 1999 as part of additional promotion. Sugar spent eight total weeks on the Billboard 200 chart, reaching a peak of #81 in its first week of release. The single "You Wanted More" reached a high of #3 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks charts in the U.S., and was featured on the soundtrack for the film American Pie.
Sugar (2008 film)
Sugar is a 2008 sports drama film directed by Anna Boden and Ryan Fleck. It follows the story of Miguel Santos, a. k. a. Sugar ( Algenis Perez Soto), a Dominican pitcher from San Pedro de Macorís, struggling to make it to the big leagues and pull himself and his family out of poverty. Playing professionally at a baseball academy in the Dominican Republic, Miguel finally gets his break at age 19 when he advances to the United States' minor league system; but when his play on the mound falters, he begins to question the single-mindedness of his life's ambition.
Sugar (Flo Rida song)
"Sugar" is a song by American rapper Flo Rida, featuring American pop/dance singer Wynter Gordon. The song's chorus samples the song " Blue (Da Ba Dee)" by Italian electronic music group Eiffel 65. The song was written by Flo Rida, The Jackie Boyz, Jeffrey Jey, Maurizio Lobina, and Massimo Gabutti, and was produced by DJ Montay for Flo Rida's second album, R.O.O.T.S.. The song was released as the album's third official single in March 2009 as a digital download.
The single became the second top 10 single from R.O.O.T.S., reaching number five on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100, fueled by high sales from digital downloads. The single has also been successful in other countries, reaching the top ten in Canada, and on other Billboard subcharts. Following the song's success in the U.S., the song was released May 25, 2009, in the United Kingdom.
Sugar (Claw Boys Claw album)
$uga(r) is the sixth studio album by Dutch rock and roll band Claw Boys Claw and the first on EMI. It is one of their commercially most successful albums, and musically it sees the former garage band move toward what would be called "swamp rock." It was the most successful album of their career, reaching #26 on 13 February 1993 on the Dutch album chart, and staying on the chart for 10 weeks. Of the three singles that came from the album, the first one, "Rosie," charted—the first time ever for a Claw Boys Claw single—and reached #22 on 30 January 1993.
The CD was reissued in 2008, with two extra tracks; "Spread That Jam (remix)" and "The Keeper" had earlier been released as a CD single.
Sugar (Maceo Pinkard song)
"Sugar", also known as "That Sugar Baby o' Mine", is a popular song by Maceo Pinkard, his wife Edna Alexander and Sidney D. Mitchell.
The song is not to be confused with another 1927 song titled "Sugar", written by Jack Yellen, Milton Ager, Frank Crum and Red Nichols.
The song has been recorded by numerous artists, and is considered a jazz standard. Artists that have recorded the song include Adrian Rollini, Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines, Fats Waller, Ethel Waters, Bing Crosby, Benny Goodman, Count Basie, Fletcher Henderson, Billie Holiday, Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa, Kenny Davern, Ralph Sutton, The Manhattan Transfer and Lee Wiley.
Sugar (Gimme Some)
"Sugar (Gimme Some)" is the 2nd single by American rapper Trick Daddy from his 6th studio album Thug Matrimony: Married to the Streets. It features Ludacris & Cee-Lo Green & was produced by Mike Caren. The single was certified Gold by the RIAA.
Sugar (Stanley Turrentine album)
Sugar is an album by jazz saxophonist Stanley Turrentine, his first recorded for the CTI Records label following his long association with Blue Note, featuring performances by Turrentine with Freddie Hubbard, George Benson, Ron Carter, and Billy Kaye with Lonnie Liston Smith added on the title track and Butch Cornell and Richard "Pablo" Landrum on the other two tracks on the original release. The CD rerelease added a live version of the title track recorded at the Hollywood Palladium in 1971.
Sugar (Dead Confederate album)
Sugar is the second full-length album from Athens, Georgia based band, Dead Confederate. It was recorded in Hoboken, NJ with producer John Agnello ( The Hold Steady, Dinosaur Jr., Sonic Youth) in early 2010.
Sugar (2013 film)
Sugar is an American film released on November 8, 2013 in conjunction with Homeless Youth Awareness Month. The film was directed by Rotimi Rainwater, written by Tony Aloupis and Rotimi Rainwater, and stars Shenae Grimes, Marshall Allman, Corbin Bleu, and Austin Williams. The film is based on the experiences Rainwater had when he himself lived on the streets.
Sugar (My Bloody Valentine song)
"Sugar" is a song by the alternative rock band My Bloody Valentine. It was released as a non-album split single with Pacific, whose song "December, with the Day" is featured as the single's b-side. "Sugar"/"December, with the Day" was released in February 1989 on Creation Records and issued free with issue 67 of the British music magazine The Catalogue.
Written by vocalist and guitarist Kevin Shields, "Sugar" was recorded prior to the initial recording sessions for the band's second studio album Loveless (1991). Creation Records had requested My Bloody Valentine to record a track for The Catalogue and coincidentally "right at the same time, Bill Carey, a friend [of the band] who worked in a studio said that anytime [they] wanted to mess around in a studio, [they] could, so [they] went in and made ["Sugar"] up."
Originally released as a square 7-inch flexi disc, "Sugar" was later featured as the b-side on the 1992 French pressing of " Only Shallow". A remastered version was released on the compilation album EP's 1988–1991 (2012). Critics have described the song as "a drowsily sweet, raggedly swaying number" and "structurally pitched somewhere in between the sonic excesses of Isn't Anything and experimental passages on Loveless".
Sugar (15& album)
Sugar is the debut album by 15&, a South Korean duo signed under JYP Entertainment that debuted in 2012. It was released on May 26, 2014 with the song of the same name serving as the lead track for the album. The album consists of ten tracks which also includes three tracks that have been previously released since 2012.
Sugar (Editors song)
"Sugar" is a song by British post-punk revival band Editors from their fourth studio album The Weight of Your Love. The song was released as the fourth single from the album on 24 March 2014.
Sugar (Maroon 5 song)
"Sugar" is a song recorded by American pop rock band Maroon 5 for their fifth studio album, V (2014). It was written by Mike Posner, Adam Levine, Dr. Luke, and Jacob Kasher Hindlin together with its producers Ammo and Cirkut. It was sent to contemporary hit radio in the United States, as the third single from the album on January 13, 2015. A remix of the song, featuring rapper Nicki Minaj was digitally released on March 10 via the iTunes Store. "Sugar" is a disco, funk- pop and soul song that features a wide range of instruments including percussion, keyboards and guitars.
"Sugar" received generally positive reviews from music critics, who praised its catchy feel and retro vibe. In the US, it peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and became the band's third top 10 single from V, and eighth consecutive top 10 hit. "Sugar" is the 68th song in history to score at least 20 weeks in the Top 10 of the Hot 100. Film director David Dobkin shot the accompanying music video for the single in Los Angeles. Inspired by the 2005 romantic comedy Wedding Crashers, it features Maroon 5 crashing weddings that happened in the city. The video premiered on January 14, 2015, and received its television premiere on January 17. The song is also used as the encore of the shows during the Maroon 5 World Tour 2015.
"Sugar" received a nomination for the Grammy Award for Best Pop Duo/Group Performance at the 58th Annual Grammy Awards.
Sugar (Robin Schulz album)
Sugar is the second studio album by German DJ and record producer Robin Schulz, it was released on 25 September 2015. The album includes the singles " Headlights", " Sugar", "Show Me Love", and "Heatwave".
Sugar (Robin Schulz song)
"Sugar" is a song by German DJ and record producer Robin Schulz. It features the vocals from Canadian singer Francesco Yates. The song was released in Germany on July 17, 2015, and samples Baby Bash's 2003 single " Suga Suga".
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Sugar \Sug"ar\, v. i. In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the sirup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; -- with the preposition off. [Local, U.S.]
Sugar \Sug"ar\, n. [OE. sugre, F. sucre (cf. It. zucchero, Sp. az['u]car), fr. Ar. sukkar, assukkar, fr. Skr. [,c]arkar[=a] sugar, gravel; cf. Per. shakar. Cf. Saccharine, Sucrose.]
A sweet white (or brownish yellow) crystalline substance, of a sandy or granular consistency, obtained by crystallizing the evaporated juice of certain plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, beet root, sugar maple, etc. It is used for seasoning and preserving many kinds of food and drink. Ordinary sugar is essentially sucrose. See the Note below.
Note: The term sugar includes several commercial grades, as the white or refined, granulated, loaf or lump, and the raw brown or muscovado. In a more general sense, it includes several distinct chemical compounds, as the glucoses, or grape sugars (including glucose proper, dextrose, and levulose), and the sucroses, or true sugars (as cane sugar). All sugars are carbohydrates. See Carbohydrate. The glucoses, or grape sugars, are ketone alcohols of the formula C6H12O6, and they turn the plane of polarization to the right or the left. They are produced from the amyloses and sucroses, as by the action of heat and acids of ferments, and are themselves decomposed by fermentation into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The only sugar (called acrose) as yet produced artificially belongs to this class. The sucroses, or cane sugars, are doubled glucose anhydrides of the formula C12H22O11. They are usually not fermentable as such (cf. Sucrose), and they act on polarized light.
By extension, anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance; as, sugar of lead (lead acetate), a poisonous white crystalline substance having a sweet taste.
Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words. Acorn sugar. See Quercite. Cane sugar, sugar made from the sugar cane; sucrose, or an isomeric sugar. See Sucrose. Diabetes sugar, or Diabetic sugar (Med. Chem.), a variety of sugar (grape sugar or dextrose) excreted in the urine in diabetes mellitus; -- the presence of such a sugar in the urine is used to diagnose the illness. Fruit sugar. See under Fruit, and Fructose. Grape sugar, a sirupy or white crystalline sugar (dextrose or glucose) found as a characteristic ingredient of ripe grapes, and also produced from many other sources. See Dextrose, and Glucose. Invert sugar. See under Invert. Malt sugar, a variety of sugar isomeric with sucrose, found in malt. See Maltose. Manna sugar, a substance found in manna, resembling, but distinct from, the sugars. See Mannite. Milk sugar, a variety of sugar characteristic of fresh milk, and isomeric with sucrose. See Lactose. Muscle sugar, a sweet white crystalline substance isomeric with, and formerly regarded to, the glucoses. It is found in the tissue of muscle, the heart, liver, etc. Called also heart sugar. See Inosite. Pine sugar. See Pinite. Starch sugar (Com. Chem.), a variety of dextrose made by the action of heat and acids on starch from corn, potatoes, etc.; -- called also potato sugar, corn sugar, and, inaccurately, invert sugar. See Dextrose, and Glucose. Sugar barek, one who refines sugar. Sugar beet (Bot.), a variety of beet ( Beta vulgaris) with very large white roots, extensively grown, esp. in Europe, for the sugar obtained from them. Sugar berry (Bot.), the hackberry. Sugar bird (Zo["o]l.), any one of several species of small South American singing birds of the genera C[oe]reba, Dacnis, and allied genera belonging to the family C[oe]rebid[ae]. They are allied to the honey eaters. Sugar bush. See Sugar orchard. Sugar camp, a place in or near a sugar orchard, where maple sugar is made. Sugar candian, sugar candy. [Obs.] Sugar candy, sugar clarified and concreted or crystallized; candy made from sugar. Sugar cane (Bot.), a tall perennial grass ( Saccharum officinarium), with thick short-jointed stems. It has been cultivated for ages as the principal source of sugar. Sugar loaf.
A loaf or mass of refined sugar, usually in the form of a truncated cone.
A hat shaped like a sugar loaf. Why, do not or know you, grannam, and that sugar loaf? --J. Webster. Sugar maple (Bot.), the rock maple ( Acer saccharinum). See Maple. Sugar mill, a machine for pressing out the juice of the sugar cane, usually consisting of three or more rollers, between which the cane is passed. Sugar mite. (Zo["o]l.)
A small mite ( Tyroglyphus sacchari), often found in great numbers in unrefined sugar.
Sugar of lead. See Sugar, 2, above.
Sugar of milk. See under Milk.
Sugar orchard, a collection of maple trees selected and preserved for purpose of obtaining sugar from them; -- called also, sometimes, sugar bush. [U.S.]
Sugar pine (Bot.), an immense coniferous tree ( Pinus Lambertiana) of California and Oregon, furnishing a soft and easily worked timber. The resinous exudation from the stumps, etc., has a sweetish taste, and has been used as a substitute for sugar.
Sugar squirrel (Zo["o]l.), an Australian flying phalanger ( Belideus sciureus), having a long bushy tail and a large parachute. It resembles a flying squirrel. See Illust. under Phlanger.
Sugar tongs, small tongs, as of silver, used at table for taking lumps of sugar from a sugar bowl.
Sugar tree. (Bot.) See Sugar maple, above.
Sugar \Sug"ar\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Sugared; p. pr. & vb. n. Sugaring.]
To impregnate, season, cover, or sprinkle with sugar; to mix sugar with. ``When I sugar my liquor.''
To cover with soft words; to disguise by flattery; to compliment; to sweeten; as, to sugar reproof.
With devotion's visage And pious action we do sugar o'er The devil himself.
interj. (context informal euphemistic English) Used in place of '''shit'''! n. 1 (context uncountable English) Sucrose in the form of small crystals, obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet and used to sweeten food and drink. 2 (context countable English) When used to sweeten a drink, an amount of this substance approximately equal to five grams or one teaspoon. 3 (context countable chemistry English) Any of various small carbohydrates that are used by organisms to store energy. 4 (context countable English) A generic term for sucrose, glucose, fructose, etc. 5 (context countable English) (non-gloss definition: A term of endearment.) 6 (context countable slang English) A kiss. 7 (context chiefly southern US slang uncountable English) effeminacy in a male, often implying homosexuality. 8 (context uncountable informal English) diabetes. 9 (context by extension English) Anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance. 10 compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words. vb. 1 (context transitive English) To add sugar to; to sweeten with sugar. 2 (context transitive English) To make (something unpleasant) seem less so. 3 (context US regional English) In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the syrup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; with the preposition ''off''.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
late 13c., sugre, from Old French sucre "sugar" (12c.), from Medieval Latin succarum, from Arabic sukkar, from Persian shakar, from Sanskrit sharkara "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel" (cognate with Greek kroke "pebble"). The Arabic word also was borrowed in Italian (zucchero), Spanish (azucar, with the Arabic article), and German (Old High German zucura, German Zucker), and its forms are represented in most European languages (such as Serbian cukar, Polish cukier, Russian sakhar).\n
\nIts Old World home was India (Alexander the Great's companions marveled at the "honey without bees") and it remained exotic in Europe until the Arabs began to cultivate it in Sicily and Spain; not until after the Crusades did it begin to rival honey as the West's sweetener. The Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane in 1506; first grown in Cuba 1523; first cultivated in Brazil 1532. The reason for the -g- in the English word is obscure (OED compares flagon, from French flacon). The pronunciation shift from s- to sh- is probably from the initial long vowel sound syu- (as in sure).\n
\nAs a type of chemical compound from 1826. Slang "euphemistic substitute for an imprecation" [OED] is attested from 189
As a term of endearment, first recorded 1930. Sugar-cane is from 1560s. Sugar-maple is from 1731. Sugar loaf was originally a moulded conical mass of refined sugar (early 15c.); now obsolete, but sense extended 17c. to hills, hats, etc. of that shape.
early 15c., "to sweeten with sugar," also figuratively, "to make more pleasing, mitigate the harshness of," from sugar (n.).\nRelated: Sugared; sugaring.
n. a white crystalline carbohydrate used as a sweetener and preservative [syn: refined sugar]
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain [syn: carbohydrate, saccharide]
v. sweeten with sugar; "sugar your tea" [syn: saccharify]
Usage examples of "sugar".
We are also aided by chemistry in determining the exact abnormal condition of the kidneys by the detection of albumen, sugar, etc.
Like the strawberry, if eaten without sugar and cream, it does not undergo any acetous fermentation in the stomach, even with gouty or strumous persons.
These juices, together with those of the pear, the peach, the plum, and other such fruits, if taken without adding cane sugar, diminish acidity in the stomach rather than provoke it: they become converted chemically into alkaline carbonates, which correct sour fermentation.
The transformation of starch into sugar, which is almost, if not entirely, suspended while the food remains in the stomach, owing to the acidity of the chyme, is resumed in the duodenum, the acid of the chyme, being neutralized by the alkaline secretions there encountered.
A good dose of sugar, or more carbon dioxide, will increase the acidosis enough to put you right.
Raw Onions contain an acrid volatile oil, sulphur, phosphorus, alkaline earthy salts, phosphoric and acetic acids, with phosphate and citrate of lime, starch, free uncrystallized sugar, and lignine.
Frequent mention is made of sour galls, aleppo galls, green and blue vitriol, the lees of wine, black amber, sugar, fish-glue and a host of unimportant materials as being employed in the admixture of black inks.
The adulterating ingredient is usually pipe-clay, of which a liberal portion is substituted for sugar.
Well, I gets near the Major at table, and afore me stood a china utensil with two handles, full of soup, about the size of a foot-tub, with a large silver scoop in it, near about as big as a ladle of a maple sugar kettle.
We have seen that leaves immersed for some hours in dense solutions of sugar, gum, and starch, have the contents of their cells greatly aggregated, and are rendered more or less flaccid, with the tentacles irregularly contorted.
Not getting enough sleep may be one of the reasons you can get addicted to many of those simple carbohydrates and sugars, as well as the aging fats that are impostors to real food.
Then I reduced them into a fine powder, and ordered the Jewish confectioner to mix the powder in my presence with a paste made of amber, sugar, vanilla, angelica, alkermes and storax, and I waited until the comfits prepared with that mixture were ready.
A giant sheet of folded polysaccharide, a complex mesh of interlinked pentose and hexose sugars hung with alkyl and amide side chains.
His companion thanked him for the compliment, and the child, who had now got astride of his alpenstock, stood looking about him, while he attacked a second lump of sugar.
Measurements of blood sugar, serum amylase, serum acetone, bilirubin, and blood urea nitrogen were normal.