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Ę ( minuscule: ę; Polish E z ogonkiem, "E with a little tail"; Lithuaniane nosinė, "e nasal") is a letter in the Polish alphabet, Lithuanian alphabet, and the Dalecarlian alphabet. It's used in Navajo to represent the nasal vowel ẽ. In Latin, Irish, and Old Norse palaeography, it is known as E caudata (tailed E).


Ê, ê ( e- circumflex) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, found in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Friulian, Kurdish, Portuguese, Vietnamese, and Welsh. It is used to transliterate Ukrainian and Chinese.

E (complexity)

In computational complexity theory, the complexity classE is the set of decision problems that can be solved by a deterministic Turing machine in time 2 and is therefore equal to the complexity class DTIME(2).

E, unlike the similar class EXPTIME, is not closed under polynomial-time many-one reductions.

E (disambiguation)

E is the fifth letter of the Latin alphabet.

E may also refer to:


The graphemeĚ, ě ( E with caron) is used in Czech, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian alphabets.

, is a letter in which the tilde indicates a nasal vowel. It is the 5th letter in the Guaraní alphabet and widely used in other Amerindian languages in Brazil, such as Kaingang.

E (mathematical constant)

The number is an important mathematical constant that is the base of the natural logarithm. It is approximately equal to 2.71828, and is the limit of as approaches infinity, an expression that arises in the study of compound interest. It can also be calculated as the sum of the infinite series

$$e = \displaystyle\sum\limits_{n = 0}^{ \infty} \dfrac{1}{n!} = 1 + \frac{1}{1} + \frac{1}{1\cdot 2} + \frac{1}{1\cdot 2\cdot 3} + \cdots$$

The constant can be defined in many ways. For example, can be defined as the unique positive number such that the graph of the function has unit slope at . The function is called the exponential function, and its inverse is the natural logarithm, or logarithm to base . The natural logarithm of a positive number can also be defined directly as the area under the curve between and , in which case is the number whose natural logarithm is 1. There are alternative characterizations.

Sometimes called Euler's number after the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler, is not to be confused with , the Euler–Mascheroni constant, sometimes called simply Euler's constant. The number is also known as Napier's constant, but Euler's choice of the symbol is said to have been retained in his honor. The constant was discovered by the Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli while studying compound interest.

The number is of eminent importance in mathematics, alongside 0, 1, and . All five of these numbers play important and recurring roles across mathematics, and are the five constants appearing in one formulation of Euler's identity. Like the constant , is irrational: it is not a ratio of integers. Also like , is transcendental: it is not a root of any non-zero polynomial with rational coefficients. The numerical value of truncated to 50 decimal places is



È or è can be

  • The letter E with a grave accent.
  • In English, the letter è is sometimes used in the past tense forms of verbs in poetic texts to indicate that the final syllable should be pronounced separately. For example, blessèd would indicate the pronunciation rather than . It also occurs in loanwords such as Italian caffè.
  • In Emilian, è is used to represent [ɛː], e.g. lèt [lɛːt] "bed". In Romagnol, it represents [ɛ], e.g. vècc' [vɛtʃː] "old men".
  • In French, it always represents a sound of letter e when this is at the end of a syllable.
  • È means "is" in modern Italian , e.g. il cane è piccolo meaning "the dog is small". It is derived from Latin ĕst and is accented to distinguish it from the conjunction e meaning "and". È is also used to mark a stressed at the end of a word only, as in caffè.
  • È (è) is also used for an with a falling tone in pinyin, the Chinese language roman-alphabet transcription system. The word 鄂, consisting only of this vowel, is an abbreviation for the Hubei province of the People's Republic of China.
  • È (è) is also used in Macedonian Latin as an equivalent of the letter ye with grave (Ѐ, ѐ).
  • È (è) is used in Vietnamese to represent the letter "E" with the Dấu Huyền tone. It can also combine with "Ê" to form "Ế".

Windows users can type an è by holding the "Alt" key down and keying 138.

E (film)

E ( English: The Fly) is a 2006 Tamil medical- thriller film directed by S.P.Jananathan, who won the Indian National Award in 2004 for his debut, Iyarkai. Jiiva, Nayantara, Karunaas and Pasupathy play lead roles. The film's music is composed by director, Srikanth Deva son of Deva.The film was appreciated for its fresh storyline.

E (verification language)

e is a hardware verification language (HVL) which is tailored to implementing highly flexible and reusable verification testbenches.

E (musical note)

E is the third note of the C major scale, and mi in fixed-do solfège. It has enharmonic equivalents of F♭ (which is by definition a diatonic semitone above E) and D, amongst others.

When calculated in equal temperament with a reference of A above middle C as 440 Hz, the frequency of Middle E (E) is approximately 329.628 Hz. See pitch (music) for a discussion of historical variations in frequency.

E (text editor)

E is a text editor originally developed at the Stanford AI Lab (Stanford University) in the 1970s for the Twenex and TENEX operating systems.

E was one of the first WYSIWYG editors of the 1970s. Richard Stallman visited the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab in 1976 and was quite impressed by the feature. He implemented a similar hack to the TECO text editor once he returned to MIT in adding a combined display+editing mode called "Control-R"


É, é ( e- acute) is a letter of the Latin alphabet. It is found in Afrikaans, Catalan, Czech, Danish, Emilian-Romagnol, English, French, Galician, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, Italian, Kashubian, Luxembourgish, Occitan, Norwegian, Portuguese, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages, as a variant of the letter "e". In English, it may be observed as a pronunciation aid in loanwords (e.g., résumé from French) or romanizations (e.g., Pokémon from Japanese). This is also used in Dutch and Navajo.

É or é is also used for with a rising tone in pinyin, the Chinese language roman-alphabet transcription system. It is also used in Indonesian dictionaries to denote , in contrast with E, e .


Ë, ë ( e- diaeresis) is a letter in the Albanian, Kashubian, Emilian-Romagnol and Ladin alphabets. This letter also appears in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Abruzzese dialect, the Ascolano dialect and Luxembourgish as a variant of letter e. The letter is used in Seneca, in Taiwanese Hokkien, in Turoyo and in Uyghur when written in Latin script.

E (New York City Subway service)

The E Eighth Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is since it uses the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan. The E operates at all times between Jamaica Center – Parsons/Archer in Jamaica, Queens, and Chambers Street – World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, running express on the IND Queens Boulevard Line in Queens (except nights when they serve all stops) and local in Manhattan. E trains also serve two local stops in eastern Queens ( 75th Avenue and Briarwood) on evenings and weekends. Limited rush hour service runs fully express to and from 179th Street at the end of the Queens Boulevard Line, due to lack of capacity at Jamaica Center.

E (Cyrillic)

E (Э э; italics: Э э), also known as Backwards E from , E oborotnoye, is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian. It represents the and . In other Slavic languages that use the Cyrillic script, the sounds are represented by Ye (Е е), which represents in Russian and Belarusian in initial and postvocalic position or and palatalizes the preceding consonant.

In Cyrillic Moldovan, which was used in the Moldovan SSR during the Soviet Union and is still used in Transnistria, the letter corresponds to ă in the Latin Romanian alphabet. It is also used in the Cyrillic alphabets used by Mongolian and many Uralic, Caucasian languages and Turkic languages of the former Soviet Union.

E (Adrian Belew album)

e is the sixteenth album by Adrian Belew, released in 2009 (though not billed as such, it is also his first studio recording with the Adrian Belew Power Trio). The album consists of a single extended instrumental piece, presented as a suite in five parts. Belew performed the entire piece with an orchestra in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, on 28 February 2011.

E (state)

The State of E was an ancient Chinese state in the area of present-day Henan and Hubei in China from around the 12th century BCE until its overthrow in 863 BCE. It was a vassal of the Shang state and its ruler was one of the Three Ducal Ministers appointed by Dixin of Shang, who is known pejoratively as King Zhou of Shang.

E was originally located in the southern part of the modern province of Henan but later moved to Hubei. Its name is now used as the provincial abbreviation for Hubei.

E (surname)

E is a Chinese surname. It is listed 272nd in the Song dynasty classicial text Hundred Family Surnames.

The origin of the surname is vague. There is disagreement in Chinese name dictionaries if the surname originated in Wuchang, or in Shanxi.

Its earliest appearance dated back to Shang Dynasty, where under the reign of King Zhou, a governmental official with the surname, E, was embroiled in a conflict with the King.

E (programming language)

E is an object-oriented programming language for secure distributed computing, created by Mark S. Miller, Dan Bornstein, and others at Electric Communities in 1997. E is mainly descended from the concurrent language Joule and from Original-E, a set of extensions to Java for secure distributed programming. E combines message-based computation with Java-like syntax. A concurrency model based on event loops and promises ensures that deadlock can never occur.

E (kana)

In Japanese writing, the kana ( hiragana) and ( katakana) ( romanisede) occupy the fourth place, between う and お, in the modern Gojūon (五十音) system of collating kana. In the Iroha, they occupy the 34th, between こ and て. In the table at right (ordered by columns, from right to left), え lies in the first column (あ行, "column A") and the fourth row (え段, "row E"). Both represent .





Normal a/i/u/e/o
(あ行 a-gyō)



えい, えぃ
ええ, えぇ

エイ, エィ
エエ, エェ

E (S-train)

E is a service on the S-train network in Copenhagen. It runs between Køge and Hillerød, serving the outer ends of the Køge radial and the Hillerød radial. On the inner parts of those radials (where services A and B it runs mostly non-stop, but serves all stations on the central part between Ny Ellebjerg and Hellerup.

Trains run every 20 minutes from about 5:00 to 1:00 every day. On Monday to Saturday from about 6:00 to 19:00 trains run every 10 minutes.

É (temple)

É (Cuneiform: ) is the Sumerian word or symbol for house or temple.

The Sumerian term É.GAL ("palace", literally "big house") denoted a city's main building. É.LUGAL ("king's house") was used synonymously. In the texts of Lagash, the É.GAL is the center of the ensi's administration of the city, and the site of the city archives. Sumerian É.GAL "palace" is the probable etymology of Semitic words for "palace, temple", such as Hebrew היכל heikhal, and Arabic هيكل haykal. It has thus been speculated that the word É originated from something akin to *hai or *ˀai, especially since the cuneiform sign È is used for /a/ in Eblaite.

The term temen appearing frequently after É in names of ziggurats is translated as "foundation pegs", apparently the first step in the construction process of a house; compare, for example, verses 551–561 of the account of the construction of E-ninnu:

Temen has been occasionally compared to Greek temenos "holy precinct", but since the latter has a well established Indo-European etymology (see temple), the comparison is either mistaken, or at best describes a case of popular etymology or convergence.

In E-temen-an-ki, "the temple of the foundation (pegs) of heaven and earth", temen has been taken to refer to an axis mundi connecting earth to heaven (thus re-enforcing the Tower of Babel connection), but the term re-appears in several other temple names, referring to their physical stability rather than, or as well as, to a mythological world axis; compare the Egyptian notion of Djed.

E (band)

The band "E" was a Czech experimental rock group from Brno, acting between 1984 and 1997. It belongs to wider scope of alternative, underground and post-punk rock musical genres.

E (Big Bang album)

E is the seventh single album by South Korean band Big Bang, and the fourth and last from their MADE Series, before releasing the full album.

E (hangul)

is one of the Korean hangul. The Unicode for ㅔ is U+3154.

E (video)

E (styled as Ǝ) is a DVD/ VHS collection of Eminem's music videos.

Released on December 19, 2000, the songs entitled with uncensored videos include:

  • " Stan"
  • " The Way I Am"
  • " The Real Slim Shady"
  • " Role Model"
  • " Guilty Conscience"
  • " My Name Is"
  • " Just Don't Give a Fuck"

Bonus features include the making of the "Stan" video, a short movie titled "The Mathers home" and a hidden video by D12. By pressing 312 at the main menu 2-3 times you get the hidden video " Shit on You" by D12.


E is the text editor which was made part of PC DOS with version 6.1 in June 1993, and later with version 7 and PC DOS 2000. In version 6.1, IBM dropped QBASIC, which, in its edit mode, was also the system text editor. It was necessary to provide some sort of editor, so IBM chose to adapt and substantially extend its OS/2 System Editor (1986), a minimally functional member of the E family of Editors. The DOS version is extended with a wide array of functions that are usually associated with more functional versions of the E editor family (see below). In version 7, IBM added the REXX language to DOS, restoring programmability to the basic box. IBM also provided E with OS/2.

E (novel)

e (originally subtitled The Novel of Liars, Lunch and Lost Knickers) is a comic novel by Matt Beaumont first published in 2000. Written in the epistolary tradition, it consists entirely of e-mails written between the employees of an advertising agency and some of their business partners. Thus, the novel is a multiple-perspective narrative where events are seen through the eyes of various people working for the agency, from temp to CEO. e centres on corporate business structures, leadership, creativity, headhunting for and firing people to keep up appearances, work efficiency, business ethics, and all kinds of human weaknesses which stall progress by having employees waste their time and energy on unimportant things and which eventually prevent success.

Beaumont worked as a copywriter himself before embarking on a literary career, and e is his debut novel.

E (Epik High album)

[e] is Korean hip-hop group Epik High's sixth official album released in September 2009 and is also their third major album release of the same year. The two other albums released in 2009 are Map the Soul and Remixing the Human Soul, an electronica-inspired remix compilation album with labelmates Planet Shiver. Like Map the Soul before it, [e] includes a complimentary mini-book along with the actual audio CDs. The 74 page mini-book contains song lyrics, interviews, photographs, and various production notes from the artists themselves.

[e] contains two discs of Hip hop musical experimentation in various genres. Genres experimented include electro-hop, dance-pop, classical music, acoustic rock, and traditional Korean trot music. The album's themes are divided separately into two discs. Disc 1, entitled [e]motion, contains tracks dealing with personal themes and is relatively less mainstream friendly compared to the second disc. Disc 2, conversely entitled [e]nergy, contains radio-friendly tracks, such as the lead single "따라해(Wannabe)(ft. Mellow)."

Notable guest artists on this release include frequent collaborator and Map the Soul labelmate MYK, Korean American emcee Kero One, battle rapper Dumbfoundead, Rakka (from Dilated Peoples), underground rap prodigy Dok2, and electronica group Planet Shiver.

The Collaborative International Dictionary


E \E\ ([=e]).

  1. The fifth letter of the English alphabet.

    Note: It derives its form, name, and value from the Latin, the form and value being further derived from the Greek, into which it came from the Ph[oe]nician, and ultimately, probably, from the Egyptian. Its etymological relations are closest with the vowels i, a, and o, as illustrated by to fall, to fell; man, pl. men; drink, drank, drench; dint, dent; doom, deem; goose, pl. geese; beef, OF. boef, L. bos; and E. cheer, OF. chiere, LL. cara.

    Note: The letter e has in English several vowel sounds, the two principal being its long or name sound, as in eve, me, and the short, as in end, best. Usually at the end of words it is silent, but serves to indicate that the preceding vowel has its long sound, where otherwise it would be short, as in m[=a]ne, c[=a]ne, m[=e]te, which without the final e would be pronounced m[a^]n, c[a^]n, m[e^]t. After c and g, the final e indicates that these letters are to be pronounced as s and j; respectively, as in lace, rage. See Guide to Pronunciation, [sect][sect] 74-97.

  2. (Mus.) E is the third tone of the model diatonic scale. E[flat] (E flat) is a tone which is intermediate between D and E.


Amt \Amt\, n.; pl. Amter, E. Amts. [Dan. & Norw., fr. G.] An administrative territorial division in Denmark and Norway.

Each of the provinces [of Denmark] is divided into several amts, answering . . . to the English hundreds.
--Encyc. Brit.


Medium \Me"di*um\, n.; pl. L. Media, E. Mediums. [L. medium the middle, fr. medius middle. See Mid, and cf. Medius.]

  1. That which lies in the middle, or between other things; intervening body or quantity. Hence, specifically:

    1. Middle place or degree; mean.

      The just medium . . . lies between pride and abjection.

    2. (Math.) See Mean.

    3. (Logic) The mean or middle term of a syllogism; that by which the extremes are brought into connection.

  2. A substance through which an effect is transmitted from one thing to another; as, air is the common medium of sound. Hence: The condition upon which any event or action occurs; necessary means of motion or action; that through or by which anything is accomplished, conveyed, or carried on; specifically, in animal magnetism, spiritualism, etc., a person through whom the action of another being is said to be manifested and transmitted.

    Whether any other liquors, being made mediums, cause a diversity of sound from water, it may be tried.

    I must bring together All these extremes; and must remove all mediums.

  3. An average. [R.]

    A medium of six years of war, and six years of peace.

  4. A trade name for printing and writing paper of certain sizes. See Paper.

  5. (Paint.) The liquid vehicle with which dry colors are ground and prepared for application.

  6. (Microbiology) A source of nutrients in which a microorganism is placed to permit its growth, cause it to produce substances, or observe its activity under defined conditions; also called culture medium or growth medium. The medium is usually a solution of nutrients in water, or a similar solution solidified with gelatin or agar.

  7. A means of transmission of news, advertising, or other messages from an information source to the public, also called a news medium, such as a newspaper or radio; used mostly in the plural form, i. e. news media or media. See 1st media[2].

    Circulating medium, a current medium of exchange, whether coin, bank notes, or government notes.

    Ethereal medium (Physics), the ether.

    Medium of exchange, that which is used for effecting an exchange of commodities -- money or current representatives of money.


Notopodium \No`to*po"di*um\, n.; pl. L. Notopodia, E. Notopodiums. [NL., fr. Gr. nw^ton the back + poy`s, podo`s, the foot.] (Zo["o]l.) The dorsal lobe or branch of a parapodium. See Parapodium.



letter (Latn-def en letter 5 e) n. 1 (Latn-def en name E e) 2 (context mathematics English) the base of the natural logarithm, 2.718281828459045… num. (Latn-def en ordinal 5 e)

Usage examples of "e".

Coudrier si le proces en ce moment pendant est fonde, il y ait une tache sur son blason.

Le petit Jean lui-meme comprend beaucoup de choses des bois, des etangs et des montagnes, car sa petite ame est une ame rustique.

Postero die concilio convocato consolatus cohortatusque est ne se admodum animo demitterent, ne perturbarentur incommodo.

Nec minus quam est pollicitus Vercingetorix animo laborabat ut reliquas civitates adiungeret, atque eas donis pollicitationibusque alliciebat.

Saint Basile veut que le milieu de la nuit soit pour le solitaire ce que le matin est pour les autres, afin de profiter du silence de la nature.

Il est vrai que ce Mecene ne repandait ses bienfaits que sur des artistes morts depuis longtemps: Hobbema, Velasquez, Paul Veronese et autres qui ne lui savaient aucun gre de ses largesses.

Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix Aeduus, de quo ante ab nobis dictum est.

Car le vieux chef, qui a vu les Cicones, les Lotophages, les Cyclopes, les Lestrygons, les Sirenes, et qui a partage la couche des deesses et des magiciennes, est devore du desir de revoir enfin son ile, sa femme et son fils.

Elle est charmante ainsi avec ses toits pointus, ses rues tortueuses et le clocher en charpente de son elegante eglise.

Caesaris legionumque adventu cognitum est, ad eum venit, se suosque omnes in offlcio futuros neque ab amicitia populi Romani defecturos confirmavit quaeque in Treveris gererentur ostendit.

Qua ex fuga cum constaret Drappetem Senonem, qui, ut primum defecerat Gallia, collectis undique perditis hominibus, servis ad libertatem vocatis, exulibus omnium civitatum adscitis, receptis latronibus impedimenta et commeatus Romanorum interceperat, non amplius hominum duobus milibus ex fuga collectis provinciam petere unaque consilium cum eo Lucterium Cadurcum cepisse, quem superiore commentario prima defectione Galliae facere in provinciam voluisse impetum cognitum est, Caninius legatus cum legionibus duabus ad eos persequendos contendit, ne detrimento aut timore provinciae magna infamia perditorum hominum latrociniis caperetur.

Our attempts to recontact Eber and Crick have also proved unsuccessful.

Un chevalier parfait est un agneau avec les dames, et un lion au milieu des lances.

Mulier debet uelamen habere super caput suum propter Angelos: Multi Catholici exponunt quod sequitur, propter angelos, id est Incubos.

Romains et des Franks, est une reconstitution historique pleine de relief et de vie.