Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
In the C++ programming language, a reference is a simple reference datatype that is less powerful but safer than the pointer type inherited from C. The name C++ reference may cause confusion, as in computer science a reference is a general concept datatype, with pointers and C++ references being specific reference datatype implementations. The definition of a reference in C++ is such that it does not need to exist. It can be implemented as a new name for an existing object (similar to rename keyword in Ada).
Reference (, translit. Kharakteristika) is a 1985 Bulgarian drama film directed by Christo Christov. It was entered into the 14th Moscow International Film Festival.
Reference (computer science)
In computer science, a reference is a value that enables a program to indirectly access a particular datum, such as a variable or a record, in the computer's memory or in some other storage device. The reference is said to refer to the datum, and accessing the datum is called dereferencing the reference.
A reference is distinct from the data itself. Typically, for references to data stored in memory on a given system, a reference is implemented as the physical address of where the data is stored in memory or in the storage device. For this reason, a reference is often erroneously confused with a pointer or address, and is said to "point to" the data. However a reference may also be implemented in other ways, such as the offset (difference) between the datum's address and some fixed "base" address, as an index into an array, or more abstractly as a handle. More broadly, in networking, references may be network addresses, such as URLs.
The concept of reference must not be confused with other values ( keys or identifiers) that uniquely identify the data item, but give access to it only through a non-trivial lookup operation in some table data structure.
References are widely used in programming, especially to efficiently pass large or mutable data as arguments to procedures, or to share such data among various uses. In particular, a reference may point to a variable or record that contains references to other data. This idea is the basis of indirect addressing and of many linked data structures, such as linked lists. References can cause significant complexity in a program, partially due to the possibility of dangling and wild references and partially because the topology of data with references is a directed graph, whose analysis can be quite complicated.
Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object.
References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible ( onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, spacetime coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection. In some cases, methods are used that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography.
References feature in many spheres of human activity and knowledge, and the term adopts shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. Some of them are described in the sections below.
A reference is a relationship in which one object designates or links to another.
Reference or reference point may also refer to:
- Reference or citation, a link to a source of information
Reference (computer science)
- Reference (C++)
- A reference or recommendation letter for a job, university place, etc.
- Reference work, a dictionary, encyclopedia, etc.
Reference desk, in a library
- Digital reference (also virtual reference)
- Reference (film), a 1985 Bulgarian film
- Reference.com, an online reference source
- Reference design, in engineering
- Reference question, a concept in Canadian public law
- Reference or Bedeutung, Frege's term for that which an expression designates
- A point, frame, range, etc. of reference, see Reference point (disambiguation)
n. a remark that calls attention to something or someone; "she made frequent mention of her promotion"; "there was no mention of it"; "the speaker made several references to his wife" [syn: mention]
a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage; "the student's essay failed to list several important citations"; "the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book"; "the article includes mention of similar clinical cases" [syn: citation, acknowledgment, credit, mention, quotation]
a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability; "requests for character references are all to often answered evasively" [syn: character, character reference]
the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to; "the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos" [syn: denotation, extension]
the act of referring or consulting; "reference to an encyclopedia produced the answer" [syn: consultation]
a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to; "he carried an armful of references back to his desk"; "he spent hours looking for the source of that quotation" [syn: source]
the relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to; "he argued that reference is a consequence of conditioned reflexes"
v. refer to; "he referenced his colleagues' work" [syn: cite]
n. 1 A relationship or relation ((term: to) something). 2 A measurement one can compare to. 3 information about a person, provided by someone (a referee) with whom they are well acquainted 4 A reference work. 5 (context semantics English) A relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. 6 (context academic writing English) A short written identification of a previously published work which is used as a source for a text. 7 (context academic writing English) A previously published written work thus indicated; a source. 8 (context programming English) An object containing information which refers to data stored elsewhere, as opposed to containing the data itself. 9 (context programming character entity English) A special sequence used to represent complex characters in a web page such as ™ or €. 10 (context obsolete English) appeal vb. 1 to refer to, to make reference to, to cite 2 to mention
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Reference \Ref"er*ence\ (r?f"?r-ens), n. [See Refer.]
The act of referring, or the state of being referred; as, reference to a chart for guidance.
That which refers to something; a specific direction of the attention; as, a reference in a text-book.
Relation; regard; respect.
Something that hath a reference to my state.
One who, or that which, is referred to. Specifically;
One of whom inquires can be made as to the integrity, capacity, and the like, of another.
A work, or a passage in a work, to which one is referred.
The act of submitting a matter in dispute to the judgment of one or more persons for decision.
(Equity) The process of sending any matter, for inquiry in a cause, to a master or other officer, in order that he may ascertain facts and report to the court.
Appeal. [R.] ``Make your full reference.''
Reference Bible, a Bible in which brief explanations, and references to parallel passages, are printed in the margin of the text.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
1580s, "act of referring," from refer + -ance, or else from French référence, from Medieval Latin *referentia, from Latin referentem (nominative referens), present participle of referre (see refer). Meaning "direction to a book or passage" is recorded from 1610s. Meaning "testimonial" is from 1895. Reference book dates from 1808. Phrase in reference to is attested from 1590s.
1620s, "to assign;" as "to provide with a reference," 1837 (implied in referenced), from reference (n.). Related: Referencing.
Usage examples of "reference".
And, again, there is no reference to aborting a fetus, which was a known practice at the time.
Into it he had crammed a chair and minuscule table, desk-model accessor, and the accumulated reference materials and data of years of research.
Already a bit bewildered by their flurry of Classical references and Latin maxims, he was lost when Acer and George exchanged a few lines in French, watching out of the corner of their eyes to see if he had understood.
The reason is that the yellow pages are the prime reference for re- 4 actionary shopping.
Most of the crew suffered from some degree of nausea while adapting to microgravity, and those especially affected, such as AH Tillman and Alex Dyachkov, are still prone to attacks if they spin around too quickly, or if they find themselves without an absolute reference point.
Upon this subject, then, I will only say, that the present state of the law shall be carefully examined, and the propriety of adopting any proceedings with reference to the recent assumption of power deliberately considered.
Many years ago, advertisers were encouraged to reference their yellow page listings.
It has been stated often enough, but I will reiterate: Referencing your yellow page listing in other media advertising, such as newspaper or radio, is a terrible idea.
I will add with reference to myself, that these transactions show that, so far from being actuated by those motives of personal aggrandizement, with which I have been charged by persons of high station in another place, my object was, that others should occupy a post of honour, and that for myself I was willing to serve in any capacity, or without any official capacity, so as to enable the crown to carry on the government.
Blade filed the name of Thunor away for future reference, conceding that when in the land of Alb it might be as well to do as the Albians did, always within reason, of course.
Perhaps it was with some unconscious dread of this tedium that he made a sudden suggestion to Sir Alured in reference to Dresden.
Sir Henry Ancred, asks me to write to you in reference to a portrait of himself in the character of Macbeth, for which he would be pleased to engage your services.
Our people can use commercial software to do stand alone jobs or pull down the apps from our servers, or they can tap into our database, or into the huge databases on the Internet to pull in reference data.
He had to go through the big cruiser as though such a ship was familiar to him, he had to accept references to a thousand things which Zarth Arn would know, without betraying his ignorance.
But though these references may well explain why it was in fact in such and such a determined set of circumstances and in answer to such and such a precise question that these sciences were articulated, nevertheless, their intrinsic possibility, the simple fact that man, whether in isolation or as a group, and for the first time since human beings have existed and have lived together in societies, should have become the object of science - that cannot be considered or treated as a phenomenon of opinion: it is an event in the order of knowledge.