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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's , e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called " hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.

Volcano (1997 film)

Volcano is a 1997 American disaster film directed by Mick Jackson and produced by Andrew Z. Davis, Neal H. Moritz and Lauren Shuler Donner. The storyline was conceived from a screenplay written by Jerome Armstrong and Billy Ray. The film features Tommy Lee Jones, Anne Heche, and Don Cheadle. Jones is cast as the head of the Los Angeles County Office of Emergency Management (LAC OEM) which has complete authority in the event of an emergency or natural disaster. His character attempts to divert the path of a dangerous lava flow through the streets of Los Angeles following the formation of a volcano at the La Brea Tar Pits.

A joint collective effort to commit to the film's production was made by the film studios of 20th Century Fox, Moritz Original and Shuler Donner/Donner Productions. It was commercially distributed by 20th Century Fox. Volcano explores civil viewpoints, such as awareness, evacuation and crisis prevention. Although the film used extensive special effects, it failed to receive any award nominations from mainstream motion picture organizations for its production merits.

Volcano premiered in theaters nationwide in the United States on April 25, 1997 grossing $49,323,468 in domestic ticket receipts, on a $90 million budget. It earned an additional $73.5 million in business through international release to top out at a combined $122,823,468 in gross revenue. Despite its release and recognition, Dante's Peak (which was released 2 months before) gained more commercial success than Volcano. It was also met with mixed critical reviews before its initial screening in cinemas. The Region 1 code widescreen edition of the film featuring special features was released on DVD in the United States on March 9, 1999.

Volcano (Edie Brickell album)

Volcano is the second solo album (fourth album overall) by American singer/songwriter Edie Brickell, released in 2003 (see 2003 in music). The album sold about 21,000 copies as of November 2003.

Volcano (South Park)

"Volcano" is the second episode of the American animated television series South Park. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on August 20, 1997. In the episode, Stan, Kyle, Cartman and Kenny go on a hunting trip with Stan's uncle Jimbo and his war buddy Ned. While on the trip, Stan is frustrated by his inability to shoot a living creature and Cartman tries to scare the hunting party with tales of a creature named Scuzzlebutt. Meanwhile, the group is unaware that a nearby volcano is about to erupt.

The episode was written by series co-creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone. It was inspired by the 1997 disaster films Volcano and Dante's Peak, both of which Parker and Stone strongly disliked. The plot was also based on the large amount of hunting Parker and Stone witnessed while growing up in Colorado; Stan's hesitation about the sport mirrors Parker's real-life feelings about hunting. "Volcano" was the third episode produced, but it was broadcast as the second. Parker and Stone felt the computer animation in "Volcano" had greatly improved compared to the early episodes; they were particularly pleased with the lava, which was made to resemble orange construction paper.

"Volcano" received generally positive reviews and was nominated for a 1997 Environmental Media Award. Slightly more than 1 million viewers watched the original broadcast, according to Nielsen ratings. The episode featured the first appearances of recurring characters Ned Gerblansky and Randy Marsh. The latter, who is also the town geologist, is established as Stan's father in later episodes. It also marked the first of two appearances for Scuzzlebutt, who became a popular minor character and appeared in the video games South Park 10: The Game and South Park Rally. The episode parodied the Duck and Cover educational videos from the 1950s and 1960s that advised people to hide under tables in the event of a nuclear attack.

Volcano (disambiguation)

A volcano is a geological landform usually generated by the eruption through a vent in a planet's surface of magma.

Volcano may also refer to:

Volcano (Satyricon album)

Volcano is the fifth studio album by Norwegian black metal band Satyricon. It was released on 25 October 2002, through Moonfog Productions. The album is one of the band's more successful records, having won several awards including the Norwegian Grammy for Best Metal Album, Alarm awards for Metal Album of the Year, Song of the Year for "Fuel for Hatred" and an Oslo award for Best Overall Album. A video was made for the single "Fuel for Hatred".

Volcano (1942 film)

Volcano is the eighth of the seventeen animated Technicolor short films based upon the DC Comics character of Superman, originally created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster. This eight-minute animated short, produced by Fleischer Studios, features Superman's adventures in saving a small island community from a volcanic eruption. It was originally released on July 10, 1942 by Paramount Pictures.

Volcano (2011 film)

Volcano is a 2011 Icelandic drama film directed by Rúnar Rúnarsson. The film was selected as the Icelandic entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, but it did not make the final shortlist. At the 2012 Edda Awards, the film was nominated in 14 categories, winning in 5.

The film screened within many international film festivals, including the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival and the 2012 Maryland Film Festival.

Volcano (Everclear song)

  1. redirect Invisible Stars

Category:2012 songs Category:Everclear (band) songs Category:Redirects from songs

Volcano (Gatsbys American Dream album)

Volcano is the third album by Gatsbys American Dream. The album is also known by the full title printed on the cover, Gatsbys American Dream and the Volcano.

After recording the album In the Land of Lost Monsters in 2004, the band began looking for a new record label. Gatsbys was approached by Fearless Records, and quickly began work on the album Volcano. Volcano was produced by Casey Bates and Tom Pfaeffle and was recorded at The Tank Studio, where In the Land of Lost Monsters was also recorded.

To date, Volcano is Gatsbys' most significant album, and, as a concept album, the most thematically-focused. It revolves around the theme of humans emotions and their similarities to a volcano. Elaborating on this theme, the album explores the story of Pompeii, the ancient Roman city that was both lost to and preserved by a volcanic eruption. The song "Theatre", is used in the EA Sports game NHL 2007.

Volcano (supergroup)

Volcano was a supergroup band, formed by Meat Puppets frontman Curt Kirkwood, Sublime drummer Bud Gaugh, Sublime soundman Michael 'Miguel' Happoldt, and bass player of The Ziggens Jon Poutney after the breakup of Eyes Adrift. They released one self-titled studio album in 2004.

In an interview with Rolling Stone, Kirkwood said: "The producer says it sounds a lot like Eighties, SST-era, Up On the Sun Meat Puppets. But there's more bouncy rhythms -- we do a lot more stuff that was inspired by the Selecter, the Specials and Bob Marley."

Kirkwood wanted to name the band "Pine Cone", but was outvoted by other group members.

The album was released as a limited edition on Skunk Records and to date (2015) has not been reprinted.

Volcano was released in 2004.

Volcano (Jimmy Buffett album)

Volcano is the ninth studio album by American popular music singer-songwriter Jimmy Buffett and is his 11th overall. It was released in August 1979 as MCA 5102 and was his first release on that label after its absorption of ABC Dunhill.

The album and its title song are named for the then dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies where Buffett recorded the album in May 1979 at AIR Studios. (The studio was destroyed by Hurricane Hugo in 1989 and Soufrière Hills erupted again in 1995.) Additional recording was done at Quadrafonic Studios in Nashville Tennessee and Sunset Sound Studios in Los Angeles, California in the United States. The album is dedicated to Buffett's wife and his daughter, Savannah Jane Buffett, who was born just before its release.

Volcano (Jimmy Buffett song)

"Volcano" is a song performed by American popular music singer-songwriter Jimmy Buffett. It was written by Jimmy Buffett, Keith Sykes, and Harry Dailey and released as a single (b/w "Stranded on a Sandbar") on MCA 41161 in November 1979.

It was first released on his 1979 album Volcano. It reached #66 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #43 on the Easy Listening chart. This song was originally a minor hit.

The song and album are named for the then-dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies where Buffett recorded the album in May 1979 at AIR Studios. The studio was destroyed by Hurricane Hugo in 1989 and Soufrière Hills erupted again in 1995.

The bridge before the final chorus mentions a number of placenames, some important largely in the context of 1979:

"Volcano" is one of Buffett's more popular songs with fans, and is part of " The Big 8" that he has played at almost all of his concerts. Recorded live versions of the song appear on Feeding Frenzy, Buffett Live: Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, and the video Live by the Bay. The placenames in the final bridge are often altered in concert to reflect more recent news. The song was also re-recorded and released for Rock Band on June 3, 2008, with the last two lines listed above changed to, "I want to be a couch potato / Just play Rock Band everyday."

Volcano was recorded in Montserrat and was played at the concert "Music for Montserrat" when Montserrat was struck by a volcano. The lyrics were changed to fit the context. For example, the phrase "We've got to help our friends in Montserrat" appeared in the song.

When performed at concerts, a video of the song on Rock Band is shown.

Volcano (1950 film)

Volcano (Italian title Vulcano) is a 1950 Italian drama film by the director William Dieterle and starring Anna Magnani. It was filmed on location on Salina Island, in the Aeolian Islands, and in Messina, Sicily, Italy.

The film is seen by some as a vehicle of revenge by Magnani against her estranged lover, the director Roberto Rossellini who had chosen Ingrid Bergman to star in his film series about marriage over her. Rossellini filmed his film Stromboli on the nearby volcanic island of Stromboli at the same time as Volcano was being made on Salina.

Both films were shot in similar locales in the Aeolian Islands only 12 miles apart; both actresses played independent-minded roles in a neorealist fashion; and both films were shot simultaneously. Life magazine wrote, "... in an atmosphere crackling with rivalry... Reporters were accredited, like war correspondents, to one or the other of the embattled camps.... Partisanship infected the Via Veneto (boulevard in Rome), where Magnaniacs and Bergmaniacs clashed frequently." However, Magnani still considered Rossellini the "greatest director she ever acted for".

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

volcano

noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
dormant volcano
▪ a huge dormant volcano
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
dormant
▪ The term dormant volcano is applied during the period between eruptions to those volcanoes thought to be potentially active.
▪ They lie, as dormant as their volcano, stacked up ledge upon ledge.
▪ The site chosen for the painting is a view across the bays of the dormant volcano Rangitoto which dominates Auckland's skyline.
extinct
▪ The island is actually the summit of a huge, extinct volcano.
▪ Even mightier in the background is the extinct volcano of Arthur's Seat.
■ VERB
erupt
▪ Household items allow the junior magician to make an erupting volcano and camera obscura, hypnotise books and see water flow uphill.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ He is like the Roman sentry who stayed at his post when the volcano erupted and poured lava over him.
▪ He might be tempted to blame these fluctuations on the sun or a volcano.
▪ He spends the night on the volcano, eating beans and tortillas and sleeping in subfreezing temperatures.
▪ On the left is a Recent volcano, and on the right the Barrier volcano, with Lake Turkana in the distance.
▪ Rusty, who has done some research on the island, assures his companions that the volcano is safe.
▪ They had the shattering, overwhelming strength of earthquake and hurricane and volcano.
▪ Unable to see beneath a volcano, researchers can only theorize about what causes the pulsing tremors they hear within it.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Volcano

Volcano \Vol*ca"no\, n.; pl. Volcanoes. [It. volcano, vulcano, fr. L. Vulcanus Vulkan, the god of fire. See Vulkan.] (Geol.) A mountain or hill, usually more or less conical in form, from which lava, cinders, steam, sulphur gases, and the like, are ejected; -- often popularly called a burning mountain.

Note: Volcanoes include many of the most conspicuous and lofty mountains of the earth, as Mt. Vesuvius in Italy (4,000 ft. high), Mt. Loa in Hawaii (14,000 ft.), Cotopaxi in South America (nearly 20,000 ft.), which are examples of active volcanoes. The crater of a volcano is usually a pit-shaped cavity, often of great size. The summit crater of Mt. Loa has a maximum length of 13,000 ft., and a depth of nearly 800 feet. Beside the chief crater, a volcano may have a number of subordinate craters.

Gazetteer

Volcano, HI -- U.S. Census Designated Place in Hawaii

Population (2000): 2231
Housing Units (2000): 1229
Land area (2000): 56.679805 sq. miles (146.800015 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 56.679805 sq. miles (146.800015 sq. km)
FIPS code: 72350
Located within: Hawaii (HI), FIPS 15
Location: 19.449831 N, 155.235493 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 96785
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Headwords:
Volcano, HI
Volcano
Wiktionary

volcano

n. A vent or fissure on the surface of a planet (usually in a mountainous form) with a magma chamber attached to the mantle of a planet or moon, periodically erupting forth lava and volcanic gases onto the surface.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

volcano

1610s, from Italian vulcano "burning mountain," from Latin Vulcanus "Vulcan," Roman god of fire, also "fire, flames, volcano" (see Vulcan). The name was first applied to Mt. Etna by the Romans, who believed it was the forge of Vulcan. Earlier form in English was volcan (1570s), from French.

WordNet

volcano

  1. n. a fissure in the earth's crust (or in the surface of some other planet) through which molten lava and gases erupt [syn: vent]

  2. a mountain formed by volcanic material

  3. [also: volcanoes (pl)]

Usage examples of "volcano".

Beyond the five low points of the dead volcanoes on the black horizon, against the fading greenish afterglow, the New Moon was rising.

Even the succulent blue lilies--a variety of the agapanthus which is so familiar to us in English greenhouses--hung their long trumpet-shaped flowers and looked oppressed and miserable, beneath the burning breath of the hot wind which had been blowing for hours like the draught from a volcano.

Fruit incomparable, fish incomparable, roast pig and baked bird beyond believing, breadfruit and volcano, absolute and continuing perfection of weather, brown-skin paradise maidens such as are promised in alcoran, song and string-music and surf-music!

Chakans were reputable fighters known for the simplicity of their tactics and sophistication of their equipment, yet a few moments of apocalyptic alien fury had obliterated ships and soldiers as thoroughly as moths in a volcano.

She lifted her chin, raising strained aquamarine eyes to meet a gaze as stormy as the threatening glow inside a volcano about to erupt.

Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the south-east the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated.

And a spaceport, over on Barathrum, that was built inside the crater of an extinct volcano.

To his immediate right Olympus sat profiled against the multicolored western sky, and he noticed for the first time that the southern slope of the volcano seemed climbable, a bit of information he filed away for future reference.

As to the volcano itself, it could not be doubted that it was completely extinct.

Usually the great cloud that enshrouds the plateau is largely steam, with only a little smoke and ash, but I fear that now many of the volcanoes are erupting.

At the same time a torrent of lava, bursting from the new summit, poured out in long cascades, like water escaping from a vase too full, and a thousand tongues of fire crept over the sides of the volcano.

For there on the flat shore were pictures of Grecian lions and Mediterranean goats and maidens with flesh of sand like powdered gold and satyrs piping on hand-carved horns and children dancing, strewing flowers along and along the beach with lambs gambolling after and musicians skipping to their harps and lyres, and unicorns racing youths towards distant meadows, woodlands, ruined temples and volcanoes.

In the far distance, the gamelan drifted between volcanoes, married the moon, seduced the sea.

Each volcano has its own infrasound voice, says Milton Garces, an infrasound researcher at the University of Hawaii.

She spent most of the communication explaining her theories on artificial volcanoes for Plates, describing in gesticulatory detail how you could lens sunlight to focus it on the undersurface of the Plate, melting the rock on the other side, or just use generators to provide the heat.