Varna (, pronounced ) is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, and the second largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 365,242, while 417,867 live in its functional urban area.
Varna is a major tourist destination, a business and university centre, seaport, and headquarters of the Bulgarian Navy and merchant marine. In 2008, Varna was designated seat of the Black Sea Euro-Region by the Council of Europe.
The oldest gold jewelry in the world, belonging to the Varna culture, was discovered in the Varna Necropolis and dates to 4200-4600 BC.
Varna (वर्ण) is a Sanskrit word which means type, order, colour or class. The term refers to social classes in Brahminical books such as the Manusmriti. These and other Hindu literature classified the society in principle into four varnas:
- the Brahmins: priests, scholars and teachers.
- the Kshatriyas: rulers, warriors and administrators.
- the Vaishyas: cattle herders, agriculturists, artisans and merchants.
- the Shudras: laborers and service providers.
This quadruple division is a form of social stratification not to be confused with the much more nuanced Jāti or the European term "caste".
The varna system is discussed in Hindu texts, and understood as idealised human callings. The concept is generally traced to the Purusha Sukta verse of the Rig Veda. However modern scholarship believes that this verse was inserted at a later date, possibly to create a charter myth.
The commentary on the Varna system in the Manusmriti is oft-cited. Counter to these textual classifications, many Hindu texts and doctrines question and disagree with the Varna system of social classification.
Varna is a large city in Bulgaria.
Varna may also refer to:Geography
- Varna Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
Varna Province, a province in Bulgaria
- Varna Municipality
- Gulf of Varna, on Bulgaria's Black Sea coast
- Lake Varna, Bulgaria
- Varna, the Italian name of Vahrn comune (municipality) in Italy
- Varna, Azerbaijan, a village in Azerbaijan
- Varna, Iran, previous name of Varamin, a city in Iran
- Varna, Isfahan, a village in Iran
- Varna, Russia, a rural locality (a selo) in Varnensky District of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia
- Varna (Šabac), a village in Serbia
- Varna, Illinois, a village in the United States
- Varna, New York, a hamlet in the United States
- Varna, Ontario, a rural community in the municipality of Bluewater, Ontario
- Siege of Varna (1201), in which the Bulgarians captured the city from the Byzantines
- Crusade of Varna (1443-1444), ended by the Battle of Varna
- Battle of Varna (1444), in which the Ottomans defeated the Crusaders
- Varna culture, neolithic culture of north-eastern Bulgaria
- Varna (Hinduism), the social class system
, a number of ships with this name
- MFC Varna, a professional futsal team based in Varna, Bulgaria
- Varna, an upcoming Telugu film releasing in 2013
Varna is a village in the municipality of Šabac, Serbia. According to the 2002 census, the town has a population of 1720 people.
Varna, IL -- U.S. village in Illinois
Housing Units (2000): 190
Land area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km)
FIPS code: 77395
Located within: Illinois (IL), FIPS 17
Location: 41.036562 N, 89.224779 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 61375
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
n. (Hinduism) the name for the original social division of Vedic people into four groups (which are subdivided into thousands of jatis)
n. (context Hinduism English) any of the four original castes in Hinduism, or the system of such castes
Usage examples of "varna".
Under the banner of their veteran leader, the Janizaries fought and conquered but he withdrew from the field of Varna, again to pray, to fast, and to turn round with his Magnesian brethren.
In Indian spirituality they have allowed all sorts of experiments including Varna Marga, and you see how wonderfully it has developed.
Yonge, though health obliged the latter to return from Varna, while the former took part in the famous Balaklava charge, and was unhurt, though his horse was killed.
An interplanette mission anyway—using little more than a bridge and some pulleys, he and the artisans of Highrock have hurled this capsule at the sky, and then with dinite he’s blasted it back off the surface of Varna, the tiny world where the payload lay marooned.
The Ye-tai are not part of the caste-and-class structure of Hindu society-what Indians themselves call the varna system.
Below the weather deck were forklift trucks for Istanbul and agricultural machinery for Varna in Bulgaria, part of a transshipment cargo that had come in from Amer.
Below the weather deck were forklift trucks for Istanbul and agricultural machinery for Varna in Bulgaria, part of a transshipment cargo that had come in from Amer-ica as far as Piraeus.
The honor he mentioned was legendary—one that she and Varna had playacted as children.