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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

sum

I.noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
a huge amount/sum/quantity etc
▪ huge sums of money
a sum of money (also an amount of money)
▪ £10,000 seemed a huge sum of money to me.
do a calculation/sum (=use numbers to find out a figure, price etc)
▪ I did a quick calculation on a piece of paper.
lump sum
▪ When you retire you’ll get a lump sum of £80,000.
paltry sum
paltry sum of money
sum total
▪ That’s the sum total of my knowledge about it.
the princely sum of
▪ My savings had now reached the princely sum of £30.
the sum total (=the whole of an amount, when everything is added together)
▪ This was the sum total of her grandfather's possessions.
vast amounts/numbers/quantities/sums etc (of sth)
▪ The government will have to borrow vast amounts of money.
▪ The refugees come across the border in vast numbers.
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
considerable
▪ Yes, both Place and Egan had considerable sums stowed away from various jobs.
▪ Owing to the large amount of work demanded, this would be quite a considerable sum.
▪ In mass transit, private bus companies spend considerable sums to influence legislatures, to get and keep their contracts.
▪ The followers of this cult are, nevertheless, looking to the future and investing considerable sums of money in it.
▪ The crisis has been caused partly by the reluctance of self-employed family doctors to invest the considerable sums needed to computerise.
▪ Minna had spent a considerable sum of money on me and I could not die a swindler.
enormous
▪ Virtually all Third World countries were Spending enormous sums on war or preparation for war, despite staggering debts and dreadful poverty.
▪ Lawyers are really expert at making you pay enormous sums for their advice.
fixed
▪ The policy guarantees a fixed sum to your pet if you die.
▪ Recall that a bond is an asset that earns a fixed sum of money for its owner each year.
▪ If the authority receives a fixed sum 31, then it is able to purchase more of the publicly provided good.
▪ Usually this is a fixed sum which, at the time of writing seems to average around £90.
▪ From each performance they were given either a fixed sum or collected money from the crowd for charity.
▪ This petty cash is kept on the imprest system, whereby the petty cashier is entrusted with a fixed sum of money.
▪ The petty cashier must always account for a certain fixed sum of money. 2.
▪ He would then have drawings and quantities prepared and would invite tenders for a fixed sum.
great
▪ One of its ideas is that of holism - the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
▪ Is it thus greater than the sum of the individual parts?
▪ Labor provides Daley with his strongest personal support and contributes great sums to his campaigns.
▪ A plan consists of time, resources and indicated action but the whole is much greater than the sum of the parts.
▪ It was their intention to suggest that the negative total was greater than the sum of his recent accomplishments.
▪ On the other hand, it was no great sum and Hope's custom had given him publicity.
huge
▪ The major companies operating in these markets spend huge sums on marketing in order to promote their products globally.
▪ The only alternative to raising huge sums of money is to have it already.
▪ All Mr Fractor did was write huge sums on his blackboards.
▪ Though banks lend huge sums to firms, banks are not the only source of lending.
▪ It was completed in 1970, at a cost of one billion dollars - a huge sum in those days.
▪ Achieving the goal of absolute purity would cost an additional huge but undetermined sum.
▪ On top of that come huge sums of cheap credit to enterprises which must be reduced if inflation is to be controlled.
▪ Each vessel must have cost a huge sum, and carried at least a score of men on board.
large
▪ In addition, he was ordered to pay large sums of money to the government as compensation for his negligence.
▪ Format Many public libraries now spend large sums on paperbacks, and budget for them separately.
▪ He advanced large sums to Parliament and later invested heavily on his own account in the purchase of bishops' lands.
▪ It often saves large sums in absenteeism and recruitment as companies retain a better workforce.
▪ This will require them to deal with complex legal questions and to control large sums of money.
▪ The Crown needed larger sums for longer periods than London financiers could provide.
▪ Retail and wholesale banks alike raise large sums of money on this market, and lend their surpluses there.
▪ Other Defences Consent People can - and often do for large sums of money - agree to be defamed.
modest
▪ It was a very modest sum for Helmut.
▪ In fact, investing had been on my mind because of a modest sum of money that had unexpectedly come my way.
▪ Participating organisations will receive modest sums to defray recruiting, training and reporting costs.
▪ Yet this one modest sum brings you some remarkable advantages.
▪ It is £1,685.02, a fairly modest sum after nearly seven years of investment.
▪ Added to which, these were simple people who worked hard for modest sums of money.
nominal
▪ He applied for a grant of land and this was sold to him for a nominal sum.
▪ It would save money simply to give the pits to the miners for a nominal sum, say £1.
▪ These were leased for a nominal sum from a very understanding Tangmere Parish Council.
paltry
▪ Little of these paltry sums is likely to be new money, most being sliced off existing allocations.
▪ But the total amount of helium-3 in Uranus and Neptune is vastly larger than this paltry sum.
▪ That is why men and women come on these schemes for such a paltry sum.
princely
▪ Our local CAA-approved doctor charges the princely sum of £65 for similar services.
▪ Like the other outreach workers Saturday, Harris earned the princely sum of $ 24 for her hours of outreach.
▪ And young activists can win the princely sum of £100 if they come up with the winning slogan.
▪ Eventually, they were returned to Quedlinburg, but not before the heirs of Joe Meador had collected a princely sum.
▪ This was a princely sum in the year of our Lord, 1926.
▪ Tim is doing a one-year cabinetmaking course with me and paying a princely sum for the pleasure of doing it.
▪ The result was that it had been increased only twice and now stood at the princely sum of £30.
▪ They would happily pay out princely sums for completely new garments made from superior imported cloths.
small
▪ His Milton and Dante fetch pathetically small sums in comparison with the labour and skill they cost.
▪ Others took in smaller sums, but it added up.
▪ Even putting by a relatively small sum on a regular basis can lead to a healthy nest-egg after a few years.
▪ They insist there is no pot of gold, but relatively small sums at best.
▪ There are few more cost-effective ways to invest relatively small sums of money than reinstating the support funding for tourism.
▪ This meant that even customers with small sums of money could he made to do large pieces of business.
▪ Two large denomination bills on top, the rest a small sum.
▪ Plenty of managers have had spectacular short-term records when they ran relatively small sums.
substantial
▪ As you would expect, a project of this kind requires substantial sums of money to set up.
▪ People have gained confidence in sending substantial sums off to unseen institutions and working with them long-distance.
▪ The field officer, after all, has the power to make a discharger spend a substantial sum of money.
▪ He managed to raise 200, 000 pesos, a substantial sum in those days, to begin his religious order.
▪ He is set to front a new rescue package, with a mystery backer ready to invest a substantial sum.
▪ Now careless loss of a substantial sum of money.
▪ It has redrawn the boundaries between the public and private sectors in favour of the latter and raised substantial sums for the Treasury.
▪ For those businesses requiring substantial sums of cash it is often appropriate to provide these from our Cash centres.
tidy
▪ Even allowing for what they would have lost on laundering the proceeds, there should have been a tidy sum.
▪ Chief Auctioneer, Michael Welch, suggests that silver, brass or other trinkets could well fetch a tidy sum.
▪ Would we be right in thinking, a tidy sum?
▪ And, if my memory serves me right, you stand to rake in a tidy sum on that.
▪ These represented a tidy sum, not a great fortune but enough for her to be comfortably off.
▪ Still, I should be coming in for a tidy sum of compensation.
total
▪ Klein reports that the total sums spent began a slow rise from the 1970s, reaching £39 million by 1983.
▪ Next they weighed each new shopping plan against their total sum of money.
▪ Each school received figures showing how the total sum available to them had been allocated under different headings.
▪ But this total sum is distributed very unevenly among the schools.
▪ The total sum is then debited to your Current Account.
▪ The report also says that the total sum spent on improvements is far less than required.
▪ In the case of unspecified valuables, there is a total sum insured and a separate single article limit.
▪ The normal premium is about 10 percent of the total sum insured.
undisclosed
▪ Disney said yesterday it had reached a settlement with one group of contractors for an undisclosed sum.
▪ Koutros' attorney, Steven Thaler, said the case had been settled last year for an undisclosed sum.
▪ Darlington conservatory maker Amdega bought a Staffordshire-based rival for an undisclosed sum.
▪ Acquired by Houston from San Antonio for an undisclosed sum on Feb. 21, 1990.
▪ Boots is selling Fine Art Wallcoverings to its management for an undisclosed sum.
▪ However, he settled the case for an undisclosed sum in 1992.
▪ Disney has an option to buy the entire 140, 000 square-foot site from Slough Estates for an undisclosed sum.
vast
▪ Creditors and investors stood to lose vast sums.
▪ Rather than expending vast sums on political posturing, we may in-stead choose to invest in potentially profitable space enterprises.
▪ Shoppers will have more in their pockets and it will not cost companies vast sums to borrow for expansion.
▪ And I recognize now that Kathie Lee is above all a humanitarian who raises vast sums for good causes.
▪ Major record companies invest vast sums of money in new artists every year.
▪ Most businesses, especially small businesses, can not afford to squander vast sums of money on such refined legalistic nit-picking.
▪ Courts don't pay out vast sums of money for ruined holidays.
▪ Her father had bought it for a vast sum from a sailor in a pub.
■ VERB
add
▪ Marcella Tate came to the Incident Room and made her statement which added nothing to the sum of their knowledge.
▪ But nobody fuses much over daily expenditures on sales and gasoline taxes -- even though they add up to large sums annually.
▪ Equally it has to be acknowledged that misguided and failed protest has added to the sum of human misery.
▪ But the whole doesn't always add up to the sum of its mostly clever parts.
▪ This one is well researched, but I question whether it adds much to the sum total of our knowledge about Wellington.
give
▪ When I accepted he suggested I might like to give him a certain sum to help the wine flow.
▪ If a fire department were given a lump sum budget and allowed to keep any savings, these incentives would change.
▪ Some state schools have followed the example of the independent schools in asking parents to give covenanted sums.
▪ Had she wanted it, the Loreto Order would certainly have given her a reasonable sum to cover her expenses.
▪ Should you wish to give away substantial sums of money which will reduce your savings you should notify the Department.
▪ If they gave you ten sums, you were allowed to get only one wrong.
▪ From each performance they were given either a fixed sum or collected money from the crowd for charity.
▪ What if I wish to give a sum of capital or a sum in excess of my annual taxable income?
invest
▪ Major record companies invest vast sums of money in new artists every year.
▪ The followers of this cult are, nevertheless, looking to the future and investing considerable sums of money in it.
▪ First, whether you are investing a lump sum or saving from income, you can never start too soon.
▪ I am 74 years old and when I retired in 1982 I invested my lump sum pension with a brokerage.
▪ There are few more cost-effective ways to invest relatively small sums of money than reinstating the support funding for tourism.
▪ He has done well before and now wants to invest a large sum of money in your operation.
▪ He is set to front a new rescue package, with a mystery backer ready to invest a substantial sum.
▪ You can either invest both the original sum and interest for another fixed term.
involve
▪ Reinstating a siding at Bedale would involve a five-figure sum.
▪ The management offer involves a lump sum payment of £300 and a pay rise of about £8 a week from next July.
▪ You will also handle projects involving large sums of public money.
▪ For all the children, the best indicator of response time was the size of the smaller number involved in the sum.
pay
▪ Lawyers are really expert at making you pay enormous sums for their advice.
▪ Courts don't pay out vast sums of money for ruined holidays.
▪ The firm had just paid him a fantastic sum of money.
▪ If we are to pay out a large sum to cover the last cargo there must be some corroboration.
▪ In addition the government would pay an annual sum equivalent to 6 percent interest on the transferred stock.
▪ They paid large sums to secure their pitches.
▪ Clubs will pay sums of four figures as secret bonuses or salary top-ups to their star players.
raise
▪ At subsequent Forest Eyres in other counties the judges were clearly determined to raise large sums by fining the forest landowners.
▪ The only alternative to raising huge sums of money is to have it already.
▪ Such accommodation can often be let on a long lease or sold to raise a capital sum.
▪ Fund-raisers used fears of destruction to raise the prodigious sums that fueled the entire machine.
▪ This kind of flotation to raise large capital sums has already been seen in cases such as Bairstow Eves and Connells.
▪ And I recognize now that Kathie Lee is above all a humanitarian who raises vast sums for good causes.
▪ Though he may never have visited Leighton, he raised a considerable sum of money to repair the church.
▪ Several dozen staffers worked in administration and finance, raising the ever-growing sums needed to keep the machine running.
receive
▪ She also received a cash lump sum from her Personal Accident Policy.
▪ Dear Help Wanted: I may be receiving a lump sum of money to settle a workers' compensation claim.
▪ Participating organisations will receive modest sums to defray recruiting, training and reporting costs.
▪ Under a block grant approach, each state would receive a lump sum to be divided any way the state chose.
▪ The average partner received a lump sum of $ 7. 8 million from the sale.
spend
▪ Format Many public libraries now spend large sums on paperbacks, and budget for them separately.
▪ He spent extravagant sums for blockbuster articles by and about celebrities, and launched a circulation war against Life and Look.
▪ The major companies operating in these markets spend huge sums on marketing in order to promote their products globally.
▪ In mass transit, private bus companies spend considerable sums to influence legislatures, to get and keep their contracts.
▪ Yet to win the big audiences that would attract advertising, the companies had to spend large sums on attractive programmes.
▪ Minna had spent a considerable sum of money on me and I could not die a swindler.
▪ The field officer, after all, has the power to make a discharger spend a substantial sum of money.
▪ The Church argued that it was not worth spending such high sums on the building's repair.
PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
a goodly number/sum/amount etc
▪ It seems fair to assume that she will attract the attention of a goodly number of our countrymen.
▪ Small Dave had spent a goodly amount of time impressing upon him the importance of finding a camel.
▪ The Thatcher Years have been splendid ones for a goodly number of golf members throughout this Royal and Ancient land of ours.
a tidy sum/profit
▪ In 1899, the mansion cost the tidy sum of $350,000.
▪ And, if my memory serves me right, you stand to rake in a tidy sum on that.
▪ Chief Auctioneer, Michael Welch, suggests that silver, brass or other trinkets could well fetch a tidy sum.
▪ Even allowing for what they would have lost on laundering the proceeds, there should have been a tidy sum.
▪ He has sold no less than five cars, each one at a tidy profit.
▪ Nevertheless that blip was long enough for some one to make a tidy profit.
▪ These represented a tidy sum, not a great fortune but enough for her to be comfortably off.
▪ Until now they have made a tidy profit from selling re-issued pop hits from the fifties, sixties and seventies.
▪ Would we be right in thinking, a tidy sum?
nominal sum/charge/fee etc
▪ A red cotton T-shirt or running vest is available at a nominal charge of £1.00 together with sponsorship forms.
▪ He applied for a grant of land and this was sold to him for a nominal sum.
▪ Homes for the elderly were shut, and formerly nominal charges increased and extended.
▪ It would save money simply to give the pits to the miners for a nominal sum, say £1.
▪ The local agents provide an extensive catalogue of programs available at a nominal charge.
▪ Those registered users of Word for Windows requiring the upgrade can obtain it from Microsoft for a nominal fee of £7.75inc.VAT.
▪ Traditionally, the people's singing has been delegated to a choir which is generally paid a nominal fee.
▪ Under the program, the government sold shares to citizens for a nominal fee to quickly transform state enterprises into private companies.
the sum assured
▪ If you are aged over 55, Family Assurance Society will reduce the sum assured by £20 for each year above 55.
▪ If you can not complete the declaration without qualification, the sum assured may also have to be reduced under your Bond.
the sum total
▪ In his eyes I amount to nothing, much, much less than the sum total of him.
▪ In the orthodox view the illness is considered to be the sum total of the symptoms and signs which it produces.
▪ Indeed, the whole is considered to constitute more than just the sum total of its parts.
▪ Is that the sum total of the charges against me?
▪ That was the sum total of my formal education for the craft.
▪ The built environment therefore equates to the sum total of all the assembled items which surround us, both natural and man-made.
▪ They create the illusion that they are the sum total of their own accomplishments.
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
▪ a lump-sum payment
▪ A purse containing a small sum of money was found at Guildhall Square on March 20.
▪ Apple has spent huge sums in its drive to penetrate new markets.
▪ He offered to purchase the estate for the sum of $80,000.
▪ Instead of paying him a regular pension, they gave him a lump sum when he retired.
▪ It'll be quicker if I use a calculator for these sums.
▪ My uncle left me a small sum of money when he died.
▪ She and the other workers received the princely sum of $14 for the evening's work.
▪ She left a small sum of money to her two granddaughters.
▪ She puts away small sums of money when she can afford to.
▪ Stars like Chaplin earned $2000 a week, which was an enormous sum in those days.
▪ The apartment cost over $25,000, which was an enormous sum in those days.
▪ The case was settled for an undisclosed sum last year.
▪ They are asking $40 for the new software, almost twice the sum it costs when bought via the Internet.
▪ We had to do some really hard sums today.
▪ You can receive your bonus in monthly instalments, or as a lump sum.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ A lump sum would be paid to a trade association or similar body.
▪ But when all had been settled, it seemed that Phil could expect a sum of only about six thousand pounds.
▪ If it is less than £1.05 a week, it will be paid as a lump sum once a year.
▪ Take your pension in lump sum rather than in monthly checks.
▪ This sum will be doubled up to £80,000, if both husband and wife die as a result of the same accident.
▪ This procedure applies to actions brought for the recovery of a sum, in either contract or tort, not exceeding £1000.
II.verb
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADVERB
up
▪ Reading the judge's summing up, they were obviously about to do so.
▪ But to sum up, he is beginning to feel that lawyers have contributed significantly to the disintegration of our country.
▪ She prefaces her book with an attempt to sum up the whole hideous story.
▪ That suggested strategy comes at a time when the Dole campaign is concerned about two words that sum up the campaign.
▪ To sum up, here are some of the benefits a Mercantile Credit Personal Loan offers.
▪ And there was a little argument between two security men about some detail of crowd positioning that seemed to sum up everything.
▪ To sum up, a translator can not always follow the thematic organization of the original.
■ NOUN
judge
▪ The judge has been summing up the case against Harper and the jury will consider the case against him tomorrow.
▪ The judge will sum up the evidence tomorrow before asking the jury to consider a verdict.
■ VERB
seem
▪ And there was a little argument between two security men about some detail of crowd positioning that seemed to sum up everything.
▪ It's a work that must have seemed to sum up the traumas of the war years and their aftermath for you?
PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
a goodly number/sum/amount etc
▪ It seems fair to assume that she will attract the attention of a goodly number of our countrymen.
▪ Small Dave had spent a goodly amount of time impressing upon him the importance of finding a camel.
▪ The Thatcher Years have been splendid ones for a goodly number of golf members throughout this Royal and Ancient land of ours.
a tidy sum/profit
▪ In 1899, the mansion cost the tidy sum of $350,000.
▪ And, if my memory serves me right, you stand to rake in a tidy sum on that.
▪ Chief Auctioneer, Michael Welch, suggests that silver, brass or other trinkets could well fetch a tidy sum.
▪ Even allowing for what they would have lost on laundering the proceeds, there should have been a tidy sum.
▪ He has sold no less than five cars, each one at a tidy profit.
▪ Nevertheless that blip was long enough for some one to make a tidy profit.
▪ These represented a tidy sum, not a great fortune but enough for her to be comfortably off.
▪ Until now they have made a tidy profit from selling re-issued pop hits from the fifties, sixties and seventies.
▪ Would we be right in thinking, a tidy sum?
nominal sum/charge/fee etc
▪ A red cotton T-shirt or running vest is available at a nominal charge of £1.00 together with sponsorship forms.
▪ He applied for a grant of land and this was sold to him for a nominal sum.
▪ Homes for the elderly were shut, and formerly nominal charges increased and extended.
▪ It would save money simply to give the pits to the miners for a nominal sum, say £1.
▪ The local agents provide an extensive catalogue of programs available at a nominal charge.
▪ Those registered users of Word for Windows requiring the upgrade can obtain it from Microsoft for a nominal fee of £7.75inc.VAT.
▪ Traditionally, the people's singing has been delegated to a choir which is generally paid a nominal fee.
▪ Under the program, the government sold shares to citizens for a nominal fee to quickly transform state enterprises into private companies.
the sum total
▪ In his eyes I amount to nothing, much, much less than the sum total of him.
▪ In the orthodox view the illness is considered to be the sum total of the symptoms and signs which it produces.
▪ Indeed, the whole is considered to constitute more than just the sum total of its parts.
▪ Is that the sum total of the charges against me?
▪ That was the sum total of my formal education for the craft.
▪ The built environment therefore equates to the sum total of all the assembled items which surround us, both natural and man-made.
▪ They create the illusion that they are the sum total of their own accomplishments.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ Ask the task orientated member to regularly sum up where the meeting has reached.
▪ It is possible to sum up the Pauline arguments in terms of two directives.
▪ Three words to sum up the feelings of the Hereford fans on Saturday.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Sum

Sum \Sum\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Summed; p. pr. & vb. n. Summing.] [Cf. F. sommer, LL. summare.]

  1. To bring together into one whole; to collect into one amount; to cast up, as a column of figures; to ascertain the totality of; -- usually with up.

    The mind doth value every moment, and then the hour doth rather sum up the moments, than divide the day.
    --Bacon.

  2. To bring or collect into a small compass; to comprise in a few words; to condense; -- usually with up.

    ``Go to the ant, thou sluggard,'' in few words sums up the moral of this fable.
    --L'Estrange.

    He sums their virtues in himself alone.
    --Dryden.

  3. (Falconry) To have (the feathers) full grown; to furnish with complete, or full-grown, plumage.

    But feathered soon and fledge They summed their pens [wings].
    --Milton.

    Summing up, a compendium or abridgment; a recapitulation; a r['e]sum['e]; a summary.

    Syn: To cast up; collect; comprise; condense; comprehend; compute.

Sum

Sum \Sum\, n. [OE. summe, somme, OF. sume, some, F. somme, L. summa, fr. summus highest, a superlative from sub under. See Sub-, and cf. Supreme.]

  1. The aggregate of two or more numbers, magnitudes, quantities, or particulars; the amount or whole of any number of individuals or particulars added together; as, the sum of 5 and 7 is 1

  2. Take ye the sum of all the congregation.
    --Num. i. 2.

    Note: Sum is now commonly applied to an aggregate of numbers, and number to an aggregate of persons or things.

    2. A quantity of money or currency; any amount, indefinitely; as, a sum of money; a small sum, or a large sum. ``The sum of forty pound.''
    --Chaucer.

    With a great sum obtained I this freedom.
    --Acts xxii. 28.

  3. The principal points or thoughts when viewed together; the amount; the substance; compendium; as, this is the sum of all the evidence in the case; this is the sum and substance of his objections.

  4. Height; completion; utmost degree.

    Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought My story to the sum of earthly bliss.
    --Milton.

  5. (Arith.) A problem to be solved, or an example to be wrought out.
    --Macaulay.

    A sum in arithmetic wherein a flaw discovered at a particular point is ipso facto fatal to the whole.
    --Gladstone.

    A large sheet of paper . . . covered with long sums.
    --Dickens.

    Algebraic sum, as distinguished from arithmetical sum, the aggregate of two or more numbers or quantities taken with regard to their signs, as + or -, according to the rules of addition in algebra; thus, the algebraic sum of -2, 8, and -1 is 5.

    In sum, in short; in brief. [Obs.] ``In sum, the gospel . . . prescribes every virtue to our conduct, and forbids every sin.''
    --Rogers.

Wikipedia

Šum

Shum is a village in Municipality of Struga, Macedonia.

Sum (country subdivision)

Sum, sumu, sumon, and somon (Plural: sumd) are a type of administrative district used in China, Mongolia, and Russia.

SUM (interbank network)

SUM is an interbank network in forty-two U.S. states (all except Alaska, Alabama, Delaware, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming), the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. It is largely made up of smaller local banks and credit unions. Account holders at member institutions do not pay ATM usage fees for using ATMs of any other financial institution within the network.

SUM is a product of NYCE Payments Network, LLC, an FIS company.

Sum (Unix)

Sum is a core Unix utility available on all Unix and Linux distributions. There is a GNU utility written by Kayvan Aghaiepour and David MacKenzie and distributed with the UNIX- and Linux-based operating systems. This utility outputs the checksum of each argument file, as well as the number of blocks they take on disk.

According to the manual page, sum uses two different algorithms for calculating the checksum and blocks, the SYSV checksum algorithm and the BSD checksum ( default) algorithm. Switching between the two algorithms is done via command line options.

The algorithms implemented in this program are less sensitive than more modern checksum methods; the SYSV algorithm does not even depend on the order of the data. The GNU manual page states: "sum is provided for compatibility; the cksum program is preferable in new applications".

The sum utility is invoked from the command line according to the following syntax:

sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

with the possible option parameters being:

  • -r
    • use BSD checksum algorithm, use 1K blocks (defeats -s)
  • -s, --sysv
    • use SYSV checksum algorithm, use 512 bytes blocks
  • --help
    • display the help screen and exit
  • --version
    • output version information and exit

When no file parameter is given, or when FILE is -, the standard input is used as input file.

WordNet

sum

  1. v. be a summary of; "The abstract summarizes the main ideas in the paper" [syn: summarize, summarise, sum up]

  2. determine the sum of; "Add all the people in this town to those of the neighboring town" [syn: total, tot, tot up, sum up, summate, tote up, add, add together, tally, add up]

  3. [also: summing, summed]

sum

  1. n. a quantity of money; "he borrowed a large sum"; "the amount he had in cash was insufficient" [syn: sum of money, amount, amount of money]

  2. a quantity obtained by addition [syn: amount, total]

  3. the final aggregate; "the sum of all our troubles did not equal the misery they suffered" [syn: summation, sum total]

  4. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; "the gist of the prosecutor's argument"; "the heart and soul of the Republican Party"; "the nub of the story" [syn: kernel, substance, core, center, essence, gist, heart, heart and soul, inwardness, marrow, meat, nub, pith, nitty-gritty]

  5. the whole amount [syn: total, totality, aggregate]

  6. the basic unit of money in Uzbekistan

  7. a set containing all and only the members of two or more given sets; "let C be the union of the sets A and B" [syn: union, join]

  8. [also: summing, summed]

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

sum

c.1300, summe, "quantity or amount of money," from Anglo-French and Old French summe, somme "amount, total; collection; essential point; summing up, conclusion" (13c., Modern French somme), from Latin summa "the top, summit; chief place, highest rank; main thing, chief point, essence, gist; an amount (of money)," noun use (via phrases such as summa pars, summa res) of fem. of summus "highest, uppermost," from PIE *sup-mos-, from root *uper "over" (see super-).\n

\nThe sense development from "highest" to "total number, the whole" probably is via the Roman custom of adding up a stack of figures from the bottom and writing the sum at the top, rather than at the bottom as now (compare the bottom line).\n

\nGeneral sense of "numerical quantity" of anything, "a total number" is from late 14c. Meaning "essence of a writing or speech" also is attested from mid-14c. Meaning "aggregate of two or more numbers" is from early 15c.; sense of "arithmetical problem to be solved" is from 1803. Sum-total is attested from late 14c., from Medieval Latin summa totalis.

sum

early 14c., "to count, count up, calculate, reckon," from Old French sommer "to count, add up," or directly from Medieval Latin summare, from summa (see sum (n.)). Meaning "briefly state the substance of" is first recorded 1620s (since c.1700 usually with up). Related: Summed; summing.

Wiktionary

sum

Etymology 1 n. 1 A quantity obtained by addition or aggregation. 2 (context often plural English) An arithmetic computation, especially one posed to a student as an exercise (not necessarily limited to addition). 3 A quantity of money. 4 A summary; the principal points or thoughts when viewed together; the amount; the substance; compendium. 5 A central idea or point. 6 The utmost degree. 7 (context obsolete English) An old English measure of corn equal to the quarter. vb. 1 (context transitive English) To add together. 2 (context transitive English) To give a summary of. Etymology 2

alt. 1 The basic unit of money in Kyrgyzstan. 2 The basic unit of money in Uzbekistan. n. 1 The basic unit of money in Kyrgyzstan. 2 The basic unit of money in Uzbekistan.

Usage examples of "sum".

Struan Callander, fourteen years old, was now aboard the Endymion to settle that debt of gratitude, though the sums of money were still outstanding.

I would only sell the secret for a large sum of money, and I am not acquainted with you.

The less successful of the female abortionists, whose practice or business is limited, to some extent, through lack of funds to advertise the same, are content with considerably less sums for their services.

It is probable, however, that neither side actually realized that war was inevitable, and that the other was determined to fight, until the assault on Fort Sumter presented the South as the first aggressor and roused the North to use every possible resource to maintain the government and the imperilled Union, and to vindicate the supremacy of the flag over every inch of the territory of the United States.

When sum in at fell aght,--soft an red, An it rested across ov his knee.

On rare occasions one or other of us had sight of the Cavaliere Aquamorta, who maintained the same magnificence at the Albergo del Sole, and was reputed to be making large sums with his faro-bank.

You must take me to Almery or return my money, to the sum of forty-five terces.

A brother used to buy her in Government securities at their lowest rate and sell at their rise, and in this manner, being able to wait for their rise, and fall, she had amassed a considerable sum.

I cannot recollect now, and could not render into English were I to recall them, should, upon complaint of the person aggrieved, and upon proof of the offence by the evidence of worthy and truth-speaking witnesses, be amerced in such penalty, not exceeding a certain sum, as in the estimation of the presiding magistrate should be held to be a proper compensation for the injury to his reputation suffered by the plaintiff.

This famous courtezan, whose beauty was justly celebrated, feeling herself eaten away by an internal disease, promised to give a hundred louis to a doctor named Lucchesi, who by dint of mercury undertook to cure her, but Ancilla specified on the agreement that she was not to pay the aforesaid sum till Lucchesi had offered with her an amorous sacrifice.

Lord King had recently issued a circular-letter to his tenants, that he would no longer receive bank-notes at par, but that his rents must for the future be paid either in English guineas, or in equivalent weight of Portuguese gold coin, or in bank notes amounting to a sum sufficient to purchase such an equivalent weight of gold.

The Baroness sent me several sums of money, which I tried to appropriate to the wants of Herr Apel and his daughter, but I found more difficulty in doing this than I expected.

The party needed large sums to finance election campaigns, pay the bill for its widespread and intensified propaganda, meet the payroll of hundreds of full-time officials and maintain the private armies of the S.

He had ascertained, through the medium of agents, that the Shah of Persia would, for a sum, of money paid in advance consent to the establishment of military magazines on certain points of his territory.

The atheistical works of Robert Ingersoll were not purchased by the rank and file of the Republican Party for purposes of party propaganda, but the rank and file of the Revolutionary Party spend large sums of money on publications in which their avowed leaders teach atheism as part of the Socialist program.