Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
Stress may refer to:
Stress (pop rock band)
Stress was a pop rock band formed in San Diego in 1983.
Stress (card game)
Stress, or Hong Kong is a card game that uses a standard 52-card deck. Because of the rules of the game, it can only be played with a number of people that divides twelve (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 12 people). The objective of the game is to get all of a player's piles to have four-of-a-kinds.
Stress (Daddy Freddy album)
Stress is an album by Daddy Freddy.
Stress (Brazilian band)
Stress are a Brazil heavy metal band. They were among the earliest Brazilian metal bands, and recorded what is considered to be the first Brazilian heavy metal album, the self-titled Stress.
Stress (Stress album)
Stress is the debut full-length album by the Brazilian heavy, speed metal band Stress. It was released in 1982 and re-released on LP in 2002 and CD in 2005 by Dies Irae.
Stress (Justice song)
"Stress" is a song by French electronic music duo Justice. It is the tenth track on their debut studio album, † (also known as Cross). A music video for the song, directed by Romain Gavras, was released on 1 May 2008 through the website of American rapper Kanye West. The video, which has also been subject to severe criticism, is notable for its extremely controversial content, which includes scenes of gang violence across Paris, France, performed by young teenagers. The song itself has received positive reviews from critics.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is a body's method of reacting to a challenge. According to the stressful event, the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. Because the body cannot keep this state for long periods of time, the parasympathetic system returns the body's physiological conditions to normal ( homeostasis). In humans, stress typically describes a negative condition or a positive condition that can affect a person's mental and physical well-being.
In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. Stress is typically signaled by such properties as increased loudness and vowel length, full articulation of the vowel, and changes in pitch. The terms stress and accent are often used synonymously, but they are sometimes distinguished, with certain specific kinds of prominence (such as pitch accent, variously defined) being considered to fall under accent but not under stress. In this case, stress specifically may be called stress accent or dynamic accent.
The stress placed on syllables within words is called word stress or lexical stress. Some languages have fixed stress, meaning that the stress on virtually any multisyllable word falls on a particular syllable, such as the first or the penultimate. Other languages, like English, have variable stress, where the position of stress in a word is not predictable in that way. Sometimes more than one level of stress, such as primary stress and secondary stress, may be identified. However, some languages, such as French and Mandarin, are sometimes analyzed as lacking lexical stress entirely.
The stress placed on words within sentences is called sentence stress or prosodic stress. This is one of the three components of prosody, along with rhythm and intonation. It includes phrasal stress (the default emphasis of certain words within phrases or clauses), and contrastive stress (used to highlight an item − a word, or occasionally just part of a word − that is given particular focus).
Stress (Neo-Psychedelic band)
Stress was a very short-lived Neo- Psychedelic rock band composed of Wayne Binitie, Ian Mussington and Mitch Amachi Ogugua. They released only one album in 1991 on Reprise/ Warner Bros. Records. They are not to be confused with the San Diego rock/metal band Stress from the early 1980s and are sometimes credited as Stress UK in the United States. Their album drew numerous favourable comparisons with the likes of Jimi Hendrix and The Beatles, and although not a great commercial success, was described as possessing 'a lot of musical strengths' by All Music's Steven McDonald
In 1997, Binitie and Mussington released a second album under the moniker of Inqbator, entitled "Hatched". It featured contributions from Lenny Kravitz, whom they had previously supported on tour.
Stress (Odd Børre song)
"Stress" was the Norwegian entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1968, performed in Norwegian by Odd Børre.
The song is a moderately up-tempo number, with Børre seemingly conducting a conversation with a friend or colleague, while trying to excuse himself to catch "the last bus home". He finds this to be a stressful situation, and sings that in the future he hopes to have more time.
The song was performed thirteenth on the night, following the United Kingdom's Cliff Richard with " Congratulations" and preceding Ireland's Pat McGeegan with " Chance of a Lifetime". At the close of voting, it had received 2 points, placing 13th in a field of 17.
Despite the comparative lack of success, the song has become something of a cult classic among fans of the Contest. An excerpt of Børre's performance, featuring the distinctive stammering delivery of the verses, was played during one of the collections at the Congratulations special in late 2005. Additionally, Australian Eurovision commentator Des Mangan derives humour from the unlikely title, the (to English-speaking ears) unusual name of the singer (generally pronounced "Odd Bore" in English) and also from the distinctive delivery.
It was succeeded as Norwegian representative at the 1969 Contest by Kirsti Sparboe with " Oj, oj, oj, så glad jeg skal bli".
Category:Eurovision songs of Norway Category:Eurovision songs of 1968 Category:1968 songs
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material. For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting a weight, each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it. When a liquid is in a closed container under pressure, each particle gets pushed against by all the surrounding particles. The container walls and the pressure-inducing surface (such as a piston) push against them in (Newtonian) reaction. These macroscopic forces are actually the net result of a very large number of intermolecular forces and collisions between the particles in those molecules.
Strain inside a material may arise by various mechanisms, such as stress as applied by external forces to the bulk material (like gravity) or to its surface (like contact forces, external pressure, or friction). Any strain (deformation) of a solid material generates an internal elastic stress, analogous to the reaction force of a spring, that tends to restore the material to its original non-deformed state. In liquids and gases, only deformations that change the volume generate persistent elastic stress. However, if the deformation is gradually changing with time, even in fluids there will usually be some viscous stress, opposing that change. Elastic and viscous stresses are usually combined under the name mechanical stress.
Significant stress may exist even when deformation is negligible or non-existent (a common assumption when modeling the flow of water). Stress may exist in the absence of external forces; such built-in stress is important, for example, in prestressed concrete and tempered glass. Stress may also be imposed on a material without the application of net forces, for example by changes in temperature or chemical composition, or by external electromagnetic fields (as in piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials).
The relation between mechanical stress, deformation, and the rate of change of deformation can be quite complicated, although a linear approximation may be adequate in practice if the quantities are small enough. Stress that exceeds certain strength limits of the material will result in permanent deformation (such as plastic flow, fracture, cavitation) or even change its crystal structure and chemical composition.
In some branches of engineering, the term stress is occasionally used in a looser sense as a synonym of "internal force". For example, in the analysis of trusses, it may refer to the total traction or compression force acting on a beam, rather than the force divided by the area of its cross-section.
Stress is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on stress in terms of: the mechanisms of stressful stimulation, the physiological and behavioural responses to stress, and their regulation, in both the short and long term; adaptive mechanisms, and the pathological consequences of stress. This includes research in physiology, neuroscience, molecular biology, genetics, immunology, and behaviour.
The journal is published by Taylor & Francis and the editor-in-chief is James Herman ( University of Cincinnati). It was established in 1996 and according to the Journal Citation Reports it has a 2012 impact factor of 3.252.
Stress (psychological)For other kinds of stress see Stress.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. Positive stress helps improve athletic performance. It also plays a factor in motivation, adaptation, and reaction to the environment. Excessive amounts of stress, however, may lead to bodily harm. Stress can increase the risk of strokes, heart attacks, ulcers, dwarfism, and mental illnesses such as depression.
Stress can be external and related to the environment, but may also be created by internal perceptions that cause an individual to experience anxiety or other negative emotions surrounding a situation, such as pressure, discomfort, etc., which they then deem stressful.
Humans experience stress, or perceive things as threatening, when they do not believe that their resources for coping with obstacles (stimuli, people, situations, etc.) are enough for what the circumstances demand. When we think the demands being placed on us exceed our ability to cope, we then perceive stress.
n. 1 (Biology) A physical, chemical, infective agent agressing an organism. 2 (Biology) Agression of an organism resulting in a response in an attempt to restore previous conditions. 3 (context countable physics English) The internal distribution of force per unit area (pressure) within a body reacting to applied forces which causes strain or deformation and is typically symbolised by σ 4 (context countable physics English)Force externally applied to a body which cause internal stress within the body. 5 (context uncountable English) Emotional pressure suffered by a human being or other animal. 6 (context uncountable phonetics English) The emphasis placed on a syllable of a word. 7 (context uncountable English) Emphasis placed on words in speaking. 8 (context uncountable English) Emphasis placed on a particular point in an argument or discussion (whether spoken or written). 9 (obsolete form of distress English) 10 (context Scotland legal English) distress; the act of distraining; also, the thing distrained. vb. 1 To apply force to (a body or structure) causing strain. 2 To apply emotional pressure to (a person or animal). 3 (context informal English) To suffer stress; to worry or be agitated. 4 To emphasise (a syllable of a word). 5 To emphasise (words in speaking). 6 To emphasise (a point) in an argument or discussion.
(physics) force that produces strain on a physical body; "the intensity of stress is expressed in units of force divided by units of area"
special emphasis attached to something; "the stress was more on accuracy than on speed" [syn: focus]
difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; "she endured the stresses and strains of life"; "he presided over the economy during the period of the greatest stress and danger"- R.J.Samuelson [syn: strain]
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Lateral \Lat"er*al\, a. [L. lateralis, fr. latus, lateris, side: cf. F. lat['e]ral.]
Of or pertaining to the sides; as, the lateral walls of a house; the lateral branches of a tree.
(Anat.) Lying at, or extending toward, the side; away from the mesial plane; external; -- opposed to mesial.
Directed to the side; as, a lateral view of a thing.
Lateral cleavage (Crystallog.), cleavage parallel to the lateral planes.
Lateral equation (Math.), an equation of the first degree.
Lateral line (Anat.), in fishes, a line of sensory organs along either side of the body, often marked by a distinct line of color.
Lateral pressure or stress (Mech.), a pressure or stress at right angles to the length, as of a beam or bridge; -- distinguished from longitudinal pressure or stress.
Lateral strength (Mech.), strength which resists a tendency to fracture arising from lateral pressure.
Lateral system (Bridge Building), the system of horizontal braces (as between two vertical trusses) by which lateral stiffness is secured.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
c.1300, "hardship, adversity, force, pressure," in part a shortening of Middle English distress (n.); in part from Old French estrece "narrowness, oppression," from Vulgar Latin *strictia, from Latin strictus "tight, compressed, drawn together," past participle of stringere "draw tight" (see strain (v.)). Meaning "physical strain on a material object" is from mid-15c. As an abstract force in mechanics from 1855. The purely psychological sense is attested from 1955.
c.1300, "to subject (someone) to force or compulsion," from Middle French estrecier, from Vulgar Latin *strictiare, from Latin stringere "draw tight," which also is the source of stress (n.). The figurative meaning "put emphasis on" is first recorded 1896, from notion of laying pressure on something by relying on it. Related: Stressed; stressing.
Usage examples of "stress".
And in the face of the accumulating stresses created by the maladjustments of Versailles, this galaxy of humbugs to whom democracy had entrusted the direction of human beings--humbugs unavoidably, for the system insisted upon it regardless of the best intentions--was equally enigmatical and impotent.
Assorted Alliteration Annexe, the superior sellers of stressed syllable or similar-sounding speech sequences since the sixteenth century.
I have here alluded to them only to show that, if we are unable to account for the characteristic differences of our domestic breeds, which nevertheless we generally admit to have arisen through ordinary generation, we ought not to lay too much stress on our ignorance of the precise cause of the slight analogous differences between species.
All the incident does is stress that the sooner he proceeds with the annulment and returns to Italy, the better it will be for you.
She had never really found a partner that inspired a lot of interest in it for her, but the company required employees to share sexual favors, not necessarily as recreation, but to cut down on emotional stress and she participated often enough to keep her name off of the antisocial list.
Finally, the contention has been made that in stressing the separate identities of a corporation and its stockholders, the Court overlooked the fact that when a surplus has been accumulated, the stockholders are thereby enriched, and that a stock dividend may therefore be appropriately viewed simply as a device whereby the corporation reinvests money earned in their behalf.
In addition, the engineering side of architecture was also stressed because of the importance attached by the Japanese government to structural design for the purpose of protection against earthquakes.
Reemerged from the labor of refounding the stressed chord of the sixth lane, he arrowed west on the winds of high altitude, his intent to resume the interrupted assistance he still owed the Guardian of Mirthlvain.
It carries the additional bonus of reducing tension and, if done on a regular basis, toughens the exerciser, making him more resilient and better able to handle stress.
But immediately the young Republic emerged from the stresses of adolescence, a missionary army took to the field again, and before long the Asbury revival was paling that of Whitefield, Wesley and Jonathan Edwards, not only in its hortatory violence but also in the length of its lists of slain.
The real question is: What causes the stress or the neurotransmitter or the hypothalamus changes?
Atomic stresses yielded enormous quantities of light and heat and great streams of magnetons and electrons.
The one thing her bosses stressed after teaching her be a bogus masseuse was that you get your violation of law without ever touching it.
To keep a spatial metaphor, the approximative character of which I have already stressed, I shall say that the signification of the myth is constituted by a sort of constantly moving turnstile which presents alternately the meaning of the signifier and its form, a language-object and a metalanguage, a purely signifying and a purely imagining consciousness.
It was already known that bees could die from too much stress, and now some claimed that the extensive patrolling of the invaders, the disappearance of monogyny - rule by a single queen - from the mass swarms, or the difficulty of preparing for winter at such a late date had made the bees functionally neurotic and suicidal.