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Par

Par or PAR may refer to:

Par (command)

The computer program par is a text formatting utility for Unix, written by Adam M. Costello as a replacement for the fmt command.

Par reformats paragraphs of text to fit into a given line length optimally, keeping prefixes and suffixes intact, which is useful for formatting source code comments. It also understands the conventions commonly used for quoting in email replies, and is capable of intelligently reformatting these several levels deep while rewrapping the text they quote.

Par can be invoked from text editors such as Vim or Emacs. To support Unicode par needs to be compiled with a patch that adds multi-byte character support, typically, UTF-8 encoding. Unlike fmt, par also supports text justification.

Par (score)

In golf, par is the predetermined number of strokes that a scratch (or 0 handicap) golfer should require to complete a hole, a round (the sum of the pars of the played holes), or a tournament (the sum of the pars of each round). Pars are the central component of stroke play, the most common kind of play in professional golf tournaments. The term is also used in golf-like sports such as disc golf, with the same meaning.

The length of each hole from the tee placement to the pin mostly determines par values for each hole. Almost invariably, holes are assigned par values between three and five strokes. For a casual player from the middle tees, a par-three hole will be from the tee to the pin. Par-four holes are , but tournament players will often encounter par-four holes or more, as it is common for short par-five holes for normal play to be turned into par-four holes in championship play. Par-five holes are typically , but in the modern game holes of over 600 yards are becoming more common in championship play. Other relevant factors in setting the par for the hole include the terrain and obstacles (such as trees, water hazards, hills, or buildings) that may require a golfer to take more (or fewer) shots. Some golf courses feature par-sixes and, very rarely, par-sevens, but the latter are not recognised by the United States Golf Association.

Typical championship golf courses have par values of 72, comprising four par-threes, ten par-fours, and four par-fives. Championship course par can be as high as 73 to as low as 69. Most 18-hole courses not designed for championships have a par close to 72, but some will be lower. Courses with par above 73 are rare. Courses built on relatively small parcels of land will often be designed as"Par-3 Courses" in which every hole (or almost every hole) is a par-three (for a total par of 54 or slightly higher over 18 holes).

Par (golf scoring format)

This article is about the scoring system "Par", that is commonly used in Australian club golf as an alternative to Stableford and normal stroke play. The Par (score) page provides a general definition of par on a golf hole.

Par is a scoring system used mostly in amateur and club golf. It involves scoring (+, 0, −) based on results at each hole. The objective is to have an end score with more pluses than minuses. The result on each hole is always based on one's handicap-adjusted score.

For ease of explanation, assume a player's handicap gives him/her one stroke per hole (i.e., 9-hole handicap of 9). This player, playing to his/her handicap on a given day, will average a bogey on each hole. Playing 'to' ones handicap is expected and so there is no reward or punishment due when a bogey 5 is recorded on a par 4. Thus, a 0 (zero) is recorded. A double-bogey 6 (one over what's expected from a player on a 9 handicap, would incur a penalty of a minus '−'. A 4 (a genuine, unadjusted par) is one better than a '9-handicapper' would be expected to score and would earn a plus '+'. However, for this golfer, 6s and above still incur just one minus '−'. Likewise, 4s and below earn just one plus '+'. At the end of the round, plusses and minuses are reconciled (a minus cancels out a plus). If a player finishes with two plusses, s/he is 'two up' or 'plus 2' (+2). The opposite applies if s/he finishes with two minuses - 'two down'; 'minus 2'; '−2'.

The Par format's main disadvantage is that there is no reward for a handicap-adjusted eagle (or even better).

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

par

noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
par excellence
▪ Auguste Escoffier, master chef par excellence
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
level
▪ Parsley was level par at the turn but found himself five down yet he never gave up.
under
▪ Matthew battled to a one-#under-par 71 to ensure a two-stroke lead going into the final round.
■ NOUN
excellence
▪ Bio2, after all, was a patchwork wilderness par excellence.
value
▪ It follows that management's shares can not be worth more than par value at the date they subscribe.
▪ Calculate the issue price of a 91-day Treasury bill with a par value of 10,000 and a discount rate of 9 percent.
▪ All these securities are sold at a discount to their par value.
▪ On maturity, the investor receives the par value.
▪ However, interest is reflected implicitly in the difference between the discounted issue price and the par value received at maturity.
▪ The issue is often made for the par value of the debt and the debt will be redeemed at the same amount.
▪ As a result, the amount of the proceeds deemed to relate to the debt will be less than par value.
■ VERB
finish
▪ Adamson reached the turn in five under par but faltered on the back nine to finish on two under par 70.
issue
▪ A 1,000,000 certificate of deposit was issued at par with a coupon of 9.5 percent and 91 days to maturity.
▪ The par yield curve is used to determine the required coupon on a new bond that is to be issued at par.
make
▪ All he could do was chip out and hope to make par.
▪ I made a par on the tenth, a par-four of only 318 yards.
▪ But he holed the long putt coming back to keep the match alive after Davies had safely made a par.
▪ He made a par on sixteen.
▪ Steve says he gets great satisfaction out of it and making one par in a round of 18 makes it worthwhile.
▪ The issue is often made for the par value of the debt and the debt will be redeemed at the same amount.
put
▪ Emissions are down by as much as 80 per cent-#putting them on a par with the best four-strokes.
▪ One Labour source said that operating cartels would be put on a par with insider dealing.
trade
▪ The jeans maker's bonds are trading above par, even in a badly depressed market.
▪ If the bond is trading below par, the issuer is likely to repurchase the bond in the market.
▪ If the bond is currently trading below par, its operative life is likely to be the number of years to maturity.
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
▪ Oritz needed only a par to win the tournament.
▪ The stock's par value decreased from $3.14 to 31 cents.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ Abdullah was the equivalent of a constable, the most junior career rank, almost on a par with conscripts.
▪ At 6,352 yards, par 71, it already offers a stern test of technique without being physically onerous.
▪ He knocked it on to the fairway, hit his third shot on to the green and then two-putted for par.
▪ In the nineteenth century the wines of Pierry were considered on a par with the best wines of Aÿ.
▪ On a par with Mom's, the flaky pie goes down smoothly.
▪ On the second day 47 players beat par with another 18 again scoring in the 60s for the first time.
▪ The card reads 6,330 yards, par 68: that's without a par-5.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

par

Bogey \Bo"gey\, n.; pl. Bogeys. [Also bogie and bogy, plural bogies.]

  1. A goblin; a bugbear.

    Syn: bogeyman.

    I have become a sort of bogey -- a kill-joy.
    --Wm. Black.

  2. (Golf) a score one stroke over par for a hole; formerly, the definition of bogey was the same as that now used for par, i.e., an ideal score or number of strokes, for each hole, against which players compete; -- it was said to be so called because assumed to be the score of an imaginary first-rate player called Colonel Bogey. Now the standard score is called par.

  3. (Mil.) an unidentified aircraft; in combat situations, such craft not identified as friendly are assumed to be hostile.

par

Bogey \Bo"gey\, n.; pl. Bogeys. [Also bogie and bogy, plural bogies.]

  1. A goblin; a bugbear.

    Syn: bogeyman.

    I have become a sort of bogey -- a kill-joy.
    --Wm. Black.

  2. (Golf) a score one stroke over par for a hole; formerly, the definition of bogey was the same as that now used for par, i.e., an ideal score or number of strokes, for each hole, against which players compete; -- it was said to be so called because assumed to be the score of an imaginary first-rate player called Colonel Bogey. Now the standard score is called par.

  3. (Mil.) an unidentified aircraft; in combat situations, such craft not identified as friendly are assumed to be hostile.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

par

1620s, "equality," also "value of one currency in terms of another," from Latin par "equal, equal-sized, well-matched," also as a noun, "that which is equal, equality," of unknown origin. Watkins suggests perhaps from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot," with suggestion of reciprocality (see part (n.)).\n

\nAnother guess connects it with PIE root *per- "to traffic in, sell" (on notion of "give equal value for"); see pornography. Meaning "average or usual amount" is first attested 1767. Golf usage is first attested 1898. Figurative use of par for the course is from 1928.

par

"by, for," mid-13c., from Old French par, per, from Latin per (see per).

Wiktionary

par

Etymology 1 abbr. 1 paragraph 2 parallel 3 parenthesis 4 parish Etymology 2

n. 1 Equal value; equality of nominal and actual value; the value expressed on the face or in the words of a certificate of value, as a bond or other commercial paper. 2 Equality of condition or circumstances. 3 (context golf mostly uncountable English) The allotted number of strokes to reach the hole. 4 (context golf countable English) A hole in which a player achieves par. prep. By; with. vb. (context transitive golf English) To reach the hole in the allotted number of strokes. Etymology 3

n. Young salmon. (qualifier: also spelled parr)

WordNet

par

  1. n. (golf) the standard number of strokes set for each hole on a golf course, or for the entire course; "a par-5 hole"; "par for this course is 72"

  2. a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced; "on a par with the best" [syn: equality, equivalence, equation]

par

v. make a score (on a hole) equal to par

Usage examples of "par".

Saint Adjutor combla le gouffre en y jetant les chaines dont naguere il avait ete charge injustement par les infideles.

Apres dix-sept ans de travaux et de combats, Adjutor de Vernon fut pris par les Turcs, et enferme dans Jerusalem.

Novelli, le dos raide et la bouche tordue par un sourire aigre, complimenta Salomon pour sa bonne mine.

Lord King had recently issued a circular-letter to his tenants, that he would no longer receive bank-notes at par, but that his rents must for the future be paid either in English guineas, or in equivalent weight of Portuguese gold coin, or in bank notes amounting to a sum sufficient to purchase such an equivalent weight of gold.

Elle a vu son vieux genie de la terre, son dieu velu, Miraut, attache par une longue laisse a un arbre, au bord du puits.

Razac and the Blue Hills, to Arneis and Par Navon, and thus at last to the watchers in the Tower of Guard in Marneri, the High Tower at Castle Point in Kadein, or any of the other fortresses of the Argonath.

Cependant il a insiste, sinon pour avoir une reponse immediate, au moins pour arranger les choses de facon a ce que cette reponse ne soit point dictee par la seule inspiration.

Then, in a sudden quiet, just as the Biter stopped her forward movement and began to disengage herself and slide astern, the fore topsail yard, bumped and pulled and jostled in its par rels broke at the truss.

I could very well understand that my colleague, Sanzonio, should not complain of such treatment, because he was a blockhead, but I did not feel disposed to allow myself to be put on a par with him.

Le nocher peut mener sa nef Assurement par cette place Dans une tranquille bonace Sans redouter aucun mechef.

Je pars en avant, les miens me suivent, et nous tombons dans la redoute, terribles et rapides comme des boulets vivants.

Corysandre avait commence par se revolter devant cette exigence, puis elle avait fini par ceder aux raisons de sa mere.

Zanette, la prendre par la main devant tout le monde, lui donner la cocarde bleue.

Padishar was how Rimmer Dall had warned him that, like the First Seeker, Par, too, was a Shadowen.

Par feared that his affinity with the First Seeker, whatever its nature, let Rimmer Dall glean the secrets he would otherwise keep hiddeneven those he was not immediately privy to, those kept by his friends and companions.