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MeNZB was a vaccine against a specific strain of group B meningococcus, used to control an epidemic of meningococcal disease in New Zealand. Most people are able to carry the meningococcus bacteria safely with no ill effects. However, meningococcal disease can cause meningitis and septicaemia, resulting in brain damage, failure of various organs, severe skin and soft-tissue damage, and death.

Immunisation with MeNZB requires three doses, administered approximately six weeks apart (except in newborns, who have them in conjunction with their 6-week, 3-month and 5-month injections). People who have been fully immunised may still carry the meningococcus bacteria and may still contract meningococcal disease.