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Ji

Ji or ji may refer to:

  • Ji (surname), including:
    • Ji (surname 姬), the royal surname of the Zhou dynasty
    • Ji (surname 姞), the royal surname of the states of Southern Yan, Mixu, and Bi
    • Ji (surname 己), the royal surname of the states of Ju, Tan, and Wen
    • Ji (surname 纪), the 122nd most common surname in China
    • Ji (surname 季), the 142nd most common surname in China
    • Ji (surname 吉), the 195th most common surname in China
    • Ji (surname 冀), the 294th most common surname in China
    • Ji (surname 嵇)
    • Ji (surname 计)
    • Ji (surname 蓟)
    • Ji (surname 暨)
    • Ji (surname 汲)
    • Ji (surname 籍)
    • Ji (Korean name), a Korean surname and element in given names
  • Ji (state), ancient Chinese state

:* Jicheng (Beijing), the capital of Ji and its successor Yan in modern Beijing, China

  • Ji province:

:* Hebei, abbreviated (冀), province of China

:* Jilin, abbreviated (吉), province of China

  • Ji County:

:* Ji County, Shanxi

:* Ji County, Tianjin

  • Ji (city)

:* Jicheng (Beijing) (/) or the City of Ji, an ancient city now part of Beijing.

:* Jicheng , an ancient city now part of Yi County, Liaoning, which was the capital of the Former Yan Kingdom.

:* Jicheng , ancient city in western China known for the Siege of Jicheng in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms

  • -ji, a suffix denoting respect in the Indian subcontinent
  • Courtesy name, or ji in Japanese
  • ji (polearm) (戟), a kind of Chinese polearm
  • Ji Koizumi, a character in the anime Guru Guru Pon-chan
  • Ji (film), 2005 Tamil film starring Ajith and Trisha Krishnan
  • Kuiji (632–682), or Ji, Chinese monk

JI may refer to:

  • Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, a political party
  • Jemaah Islamiyah, the militant Islamic organization
  • Meraj Airlines IATA code
  • Midway Airlines (JI) former IATA code
  • Journal of Infection, an academic journal
  • Joint Implementation, one of the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Journal Inquirer, a Connecticut newspaper
  • Jakobshavn Isbræ, a glacial outlet in Greenland
  • Jurong Institute, a now-defunct pre-university institution in Singapore

Ji (polearm)

The ji was a Chinese polearm used in one form or another for over 3000 years, from at least as early as the Shang dynasty until the end of the Qing dynasty. They are still used for training purposes in many Chinese martial arts.

The ji was initially a hybrid between a spear and a dagger-axe. It was a relatively common infantry weapon in Ancient China, and was also used by cavalry and charioteers.

In the Song dynasty, several weapons were referred to as ji, but they were developed from spears, not from ancient ji. One variety was called the qinglong ji , and had a spear tip with a crescent blade on one side. Another type was the fangtian ji , which had a spear tip with crescent blades on both sides. They had multiple means of attack: the side blade or blades, the spear tip, plus often a rear counterweight that could be used to strike the opponent. The way the side blades were fixed to the shaft differs, but usually there were empty spaces between the pole and the side blade. The wielder could strike with the shaft, with the option of then pulling the weapon back to hook with a side blade; or, he could slap his opponent with the flat side of the blade to knock him off his horse.

was the ancestral name of the Zhou dynasty which ruled China between the 11th and 3rd centuries BC. Thirty-nine members of the family ruled China during this period while many others ruled as local lords, lords who eventually gained great autonomy during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods. Ji is a relatively uncommon surname in modern China, largely because its bearers often adopted the names of their states as new surnames.

The character is composed of the radicals ( Old Chinese: nra, "woman") and (OC: ɢ(r)ə, "chin"). It is most likely a phono-semantic compound, with nra common in the earliest Zhou-era family names and ɢ(r)ə marking a rhyme of (OC: K(r)ə).

The legendary and historical record shows the Zhou Ji clan closely entwined with the Jiang , who seem to have provided many of the Ji lords' high-ranking spouses. A popular theory in recent Chinese scholarship has suggested that they represented two important clans the Ji originally centered on the Fen River in Shanxi and the Jiang around the Wen River in Shaanxi whose union produced the Zhou state ruled by Old Duke Danfu, although the theory remains problematic.

Ji (film)

Ji ( Tamil: ஜி) is a 2005 Tamil action film directed by Linguswamy and produced by S. S. Chakravarthy. The film stars Ajith Kumar and Trisha Krishnan in the lead roles, while the score and soundtrack are composed by Vidyasagar. The film was released in February 2005 following a series of delays and received mixed reviews which leads to disaster to the producer.

Ji (kana)

There are two different kana letters that are romanized as ji.

  • じ: Shi with dakuten
  • ぢ: Chi with dakuten
    • The kana ぢ is primarily used for indicating a voiced consonant in the middle of a compound word and can never begin a word.

Ji (state)

Not to be confused with the Chunqiu state 冀 Jì :zh:冀国

Ji was an ancient state in northern China during the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties from at least the 11th century to the 7th century BC. The state was based in the walled City of Ji, or Jicheng, located in the modern day Guang'anmen neighborhood of southwestern Beijing. Around 7th century BC, Ji was conquered by the larger State of Yan, which took the City of Ji as its capital. The city remained the primary urban center in the area until the 13th century, when Kublai Khan built the larger city of Dadu to the northwest, which eventually absorbed the City of Ji.

Ji (surname)

Ji is the pinyin romanization of a number of distinct Chinese surnames that are written with different characters in Chinese. Depending on the character, it may be spelled , , , or when tone diacritics are used. In Wade–Giles they are romanized as Chi. Languages using the Latin alphabet do not distinguish among the different Chinese surnames, rendering them all as Ji or Chi.

Ji (surname 嵇)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese characters. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles and Kai or Gai in Cantonese. Ji is listed 194th in the Song dynasty classic Hundred Family Surnames. Relatively uncommon, it is not among the top 300 surnames in China.

Ji (surname 计)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in simplified Chinese and in traditional Chinese. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Kai or Gai in Cantonese. Ji is listed 113th in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. Relatively uncommon, it is not among the top 300 surnames in China.

Ji (surname 纪)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in simplified Chinese and in traditional Chinese. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Kei in Cantonese. Ji is the 136th most common surname in China, with a population of 1.1 million. It is listed 122nd in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Ji (surname 蓟)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in simplified Chinese and in traditional Chinese. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles and Gai or Kai in Cantonese. Ji is listed 263rd in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is not among the 300 most common surnames in China.

Ji (surname 暨)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles and Kei in Cantonese. Ji is listed 345th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is not among the 300 most common surnames in China.

Ji (surname 汲)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Kap in Cantonese. Ji is listed 213th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is not among the 300 most common surnames in China.

Ji (surname 籍)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Zik in Cantonese. Ji is listed 275th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is not among the 300 most common surnames in China.

Ji (Korean name)

Ji, also spelled Jee, Chi, or Chee, is a Korean family name, as well as a popular element in Korean given names. The meaning differs based on the hanja used to write it.

Ji (surname 吉)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Gat in Cantonese. Ji is the 195th most common surname in China, with a population of 490,000. It is listed 190th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Ji (surname 冀)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Kei in Cantonese. Ji is the 294th most common surname in China, with a population of 160,000. It is listed 316th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Ji (surname 季)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Gwai in Cantonese. Ji is the 142nd most common surname in China, with a population of 960,000. It is listed the 134th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Ji (surname 己)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles. One of the ancient ancestral names, Ji is an uncommon surname today. It is not listed in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Ji 己 is one of the eight surnames of Zhu Rong, related to the Mi clan, which founded Chu, a major state during the Zhou dynasty. Scholar Li Xuanbo believes that the name originates from the clan's totem of snake. The Chinese character Ji 己 resembles a snake.

During the Zhou dynasty, branches of the Ji 己 clan established the minor states of Ju, Tan , and Wen .

Ji (surname 姞)

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Gat in Cantonese. One of the ancient ancestral names, Ji 姞 is an uncommon surname today. It is not listed in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

The Ji clan is said to have descended from the Yellow Emperor. Bo Tiao ( 伯儵), a leader of the clan, was enfeoffed at Southern Yan (南燕, in modern Weihui, Henan). His descendants later dropped the 女 radical from their surname, which became Ji 吉, which is now the 195th most common surname in China.

Besides Southern Yan, branches of the Ji 姞 clan also established the minor states of Mixu and Bi during the Zhou dynasty.