Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological row between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978. It is a separate international tendency within Marxism-Leninism, and is sometimes compared to Titoism.
Hoxhaism demarcates itself by a strict defense of the legacy of Joseph Stalin, the organisation of the Soviet Union under Stalin, and fierce criticism of virtually all other communist groupings as "revisionist".
Critical of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Yugoslavia, Enver Hoxha labeled the latter three "social-imperialist" and condemned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 before withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact in response. Hoxhaism, like Titoism, asserts the right of nations to pursue socialism by different paths, dictated by the conditions in that country although Hoxha personally held that Titoism, in practice, was "anti-Marxist" overall.
Hoxha declared that Albania was the only state legitimately adhering to Marxism–Leninism after 1956. The Albanians succeeded in ideologically winning over a large share of Maoists, mainly in Latin America (such as the Popular Liberation Army and Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador, as well as the Communist Party of Brazil), but they also had a significant international following in general.
Following the fall of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in 1991, the Hoxhaist parties grouped themselves around an international conference and the publication Unity and Struggle.