Hoe-farming is a collective term for certain forms of agriculture. In the farming of some early societies, and in some traditional cultures of the recent times or the near past, the tillage was done with simple manual tools like digging sticks or hoes, for example seeding was done manually by making holes for the seeds, putting them inside, then covering them.
The precursor to hoe-farming may be intensive gathering. As for its future, it does not necessarily “become superseded” by applying plough and animal traction, because ecological factors are also very important. Even the prevalence of the tsetse fly can matter . Also cultural factors can be considered (for example the local belief system can contain taboos against animal traction.
Hoe-farming often coincides with long fallow systems and shifting cultivation, contrasted to permanent plough-based cultivation systems and the intensification of agriculture. Hoe-farming may contain slash and burn clearance techniques, but they are not strictly necessary. It is usually embedded in the logic of subsistence agriculture.