Gaianism (also referred to as Gaian Religion, with an offshoot termed "New Age Gaian") is an earth-centered philosophical, holistic, and spiritual viewpoint that shares expressions with various religions such as Earth religions and Paganism while not identifying exclusively with any specific one. The term describes a philosophy and ethical worldview which, though not necessarily religious, implies a transpersonal devotion to earth as a superorganism. Practitioners of Gaianism are called Gaians. Marcel Wissenburg has described Gaianism as a "modern variant of philosophical determinism". Gaianism has been associated with the New Age movement due to sharing similar viewpoints, but is not typically identified as strictly part of the New Age movement as a whole.