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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

block

I.noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
a block grantAmerican English (= money given by the central government to state governments in order to pay for services such as the police, roads etc)
▪ Congress approved block grants for education, health, and social services.
a block of flats (=a large building divided into separate flats)
▪ At the time, I lived in a block of flats in St John’s Wood.
a block of ice
▪ The fish were packed in blocks of ice, ready for transportation.
a block of wood
▪ I used a block of wood to knock the pole into the ground.
a group booking/block booking (=a booking for a large number of seats, rooms etc)
▪ There's a 20% discount for group bookings.
a road is blocked
▪ The main road was blocked for an hour while police cleared the accident.
apartment block
block a pipe
▪ It is likely that fat or grease is blocking the waste pipe.
block an entrance
▪ A large stone blocked the entrance to the tomb.
block and tackle
block capitals
▪ Complete the form in block capitals.
block letters
block party
block sb’s view
▪ A pillar blocked my view of the stage.
blocked drain
▪ The flood was caused by a blocked drain.
blocked (=so that you cannot breathe easily)
▪ My nose is really blocked and I can't smell anything.
building block
▪ Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
cinder block
new kid on the blockinformal (= the newest person in a job, school etc)
▪ It’s not always easy being the new kid on the block.
starting blocks
stumbling block
▪ The main stumbling block to starting new research is that we lack qualified people.
tenement building/house/block
tower block
writer's block
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
concrete
▪ The most popular materials for raised beds are bricks and concrete walling blocks.
▪ There was another little room, the Quiet Room, plain concrete block walls without chairs or windows.
▪ Most likely to suffer are concrete block houses built in the Twenties and Thirties and earlier buildings where shuttered concrete was employed.
▪ This building also will be made of structural steel and concrete blocks.
▪ Meanwhile, powerful United States Army helicopters continued dropping massive concrete blocks to hinder the lava flow.
▪ Rusted metal, bits of concrete and cinder block, patches of burnt, weedy turf.
▪ The concrete block shell was in place by early 1992 ready for the 25-week facing brickwork stage to begin.
▪ Since then, her head has felt like a concrete block.
main
▪ The gabled main block is stone-built.
▪ The money she received went towards the building of the main hospital block in Shantinagar.
▪ Today, the main blocks of the complex remain, externally altered little.
▪ The joint venture is also planning a hotel and an office building next to the main apartment block.
▪ Access to the dining room in the north-east corner of the main block was then made via a short flight of stairs.
▪ He speculated that Rhyl platform clearances would be the main stumbling block.
▪ Old classrooms in the main block were refurbished and brought back into use for Sociology and Philosophy.
▪ The main block of the mill is practically empty but the older part now houses grain storage bins.
major
▪ The issue of taxation was the major block in reaching agreement.
▪ Economic reform, or rather the lack of it, is proving the other major stumbling block.
▪ This is the major stumbling block to experimental realisation of the Lorenz system in lasers.
mental
▪ Most of the blocks mentioned here are at the physical level, but the emotional and mental blocks are equally important.
▪ Spring focus: 2B Chuck Knoblauch claims he received help during the offseason with his mental block on routine throws.
▪ It is difficult to escape the conclusion that he has a mental and emotional block about competing with his compatriots.
▪ Beware of becoming so fixated on this one position that you acquire a mental block against progressing further.
▪ She developed a complete mental block against her pregnancy, and concealed it until four days before she went into labour.
▪ Their mocking faces caused a mental block - or a block somewhere else.
stumbling
▪ The possible stumbling blocks would be financial and attitudinal barriers to these learners.
▪ In the autumn of 1987, Conran ran into a potentially more serious stumbling block to his plans.
▪ It is still foolishness and a stumbling block.
▪ Defence cuts could also be a stumbling block.
▪ Combining motherhood and her career proved no stumbling block for the indomitable Marian.
▪ Do you feel that the language problem is a fundamental stumbling block for art historians?
▪ Other stumbling blocks include differences in the regulations of individual stock exchanges on voting rights of shares in take-over targets.
▪ Richard Moon retired from the Board in 1891, removing the main stumbling block to progress in design of coaching stock.
wooden
▪ In it, there are three wooden blocks labelled A, B and C, and a table.
▪ Two, which hold wooden blocks, are on rolling coasters, and they are permanently available.
▪ Lay out the small, smooth wooden blocks or small boxes where the living compartments for the ants are to be.
▪ Tripped on the wooden blocks painted to look like ice, the doll careening away from her down between the blocks.
▪ Teacher: Mark, go and get the heaviest wooden block that you can find.
▪ Straight in at Number 12, it consists of a tower of wooden blocks.
▪ This one had electric lights on either side of the mirror and two on a wooden block along the top.
▪ They put the catapult into position and placed wooden blocks in front of the wheels to stop it rolling into the sea.
■ NOUN
apartment
▪ The joint venture is also planning a hotel and an office building next to the main apartment block.
▪ This time she took him to a room in a large apartment block set near factories and oil-storage tanks.
▪ To Katherine, a New Yorker, used to apartment blocks and intimate brownstones, it was trebly impressive.
▪ On the outskirts of Tabor there were long rows of multi-storey apartment blocks of an extraordinary ugliness; many flats looked empty.
▪ He must go now, to the apartment block, and make his calls on the tenants.
▪ A quiet street and the beard stood in the shade of an apartment block doorway.
▪ Damian got out, his arm around Domino, and they ran into an apartment block.
▪ Dozens of people were seen leaping from windows in the apartment blocks.
building
▪ He stresses that formal planning can only be one of the many building blocks which determine corporate strategy.
▪ Analogue design remains important because it accommodates and defines the basic building blocks of electronics.
▪ What modules of data were already available as building blocks for computer programs without a major investment in new software? 2.
▪ The word is made up of three parts, stuck together like building blocks.
▪ They formed gases and ultimately amino acids, the so-called building blocks of life.
▪ The building blocks of matter are the atoms which were originally thought to be indivisible.
cinder
▪ They passed a Baptist church set on cinder blocks.
▪ The room is maybe six feet square, with cinder block walls.
▪ Three small houses, made of painted cinder block and aluminum, faced the hotel from across the street.
▪ His bookshelves were plywood and cinder blocks.
▪ If the foundation is made of cinder blocks, they need to be set in a bed of mortar on the concrete.
▪ In Colonia Anapra, homes are made from plywood sheets, wooden pallets, unpainted cinder blocks and cardboard.
exemption
▪ The block exemptions are subject to review, since they have expiry dates written in, but no substantial change is imminent.
▪ Similarly, franchise agreements are granted block exemption under Regulation 4087/88.
▪ But this point is already clearly recognized in the legal framework through such elements as the block exemptions.
grant
▪ Arts and Sports Councils established under Acts of Parliament and funded by block grant offer a further instance.
▪ Thus by the sixth year about half of all the block grant money would be distributed on a discretionary basis.
▪ More fundamentally, in the early 1980s a new system of local-government support was introduced - the block grant.
▪ One aspect of the block grant other than program decisions and performance audits would require HUD-local interaction.
▪ Transport does not appear as a separate item, but as part of the overall block grant to regional authorities.
▪ Such geographic constraints were initially absent from the block grant program.
▪ The meeting was complete with a slide show prepared by the National League of Cities that explained the block grant program.
▪ Under a block grant approach, each state would receive a lump sum to be divided any way the state chose.
letter
▪ The surname should be written or typed in block letters followed by the title of the guest, and then the initials.
▪ The files contained a single document, his lob application, filled out in block letters and unsigned.
▪ The lines, mainly in block letters, wander and slant across the page.
▪ This is what it says, high above a doorway, in big block letters, at Pasadena's Clearwater Seafood.
office
▪ The fireball destroyed a prefabricated office building before setting a four-storey office block ablaze.
▪ The first program for the office block was enormously different from its eventual design.
▪ A modern multi-storey office block is a very simple design.
▪ They have permission to turn it into a pub, a small office block or a complete three storey office.
▪ The next morning Tony parked his car and walked slowly towards the newly completed office block.
▪ The arched gateway disappeared and an office block was erected alongside the entrance.
▪ Read in studio Fire has badly damaged an office block in Gloucester.
▪ Jagged blue lightning stabbed through one of the ragged gaps and found the only thing in the office block that was moving.
road
▪ More than 12 vans and cars were stopped during the 35 minutes the road block was in position.
▪ Take off he does, avoiding road blocks.
▪ Peacekeeping troops set up road blocks and conducted house-to-house searches.
▪ Just as we were crossing Chelsea Bridge we were stopped by the police at a road block.
▪ These involved road blocks, interrupting rail services and police controlling the route to the airport.
▪ Stirred up by this incident, nationalists took to the streets in several parts of Yerevan, setting up road blocks.
▪ Near Perth, they burst through a police road block, put in place for another enquiry.
▪ The New Forest had become virtually a fortress of barbed wire and road blocks.
tower
▪ Competition entrants are asked to look at how to transform the tower block typology into a new type of community.
▪ A spokesman for the Housing Department would only say that the tower blocks had seemed a good idea at the time.
▪ And even more amazing that he can still squeeze through chimneys and central heating air vents in tower blocks.
▪ Only from the windows of a derelict tower block squatted by women was there any deliberately hostile response.
▪ And new cars shed their value faster than a Steinway falls from the top of a tower block.
▪ The tower block, the demolition, and Hugh bad now and dying in his bed.
▪ Glasgow certainly needs a modern landmark - something to deflect the eye from the miserable tower blocks of the 1960s.
▪ Maybe they had lived in one of his tower blocks.
vote
▪ It is rather like a Labour Party conference, without the block vote.
▪ Administrative means - like the block vote-have been used to solve political problems.
▪ That can now change - indeed, if the block vote goes, it will have to change.
▪ In the end the pro-democracy motion was defeated-crushed under the boot of the union block vote.
▪ The rumbling row with the unions over ending the block vote is a classic example of its suicidal tendencies.
▪ Although that would reduce the union block vote more drastically than other options, it would also give both sides a veto.
▪ A composite motion demanding the straight forward abolition of the block vote was defeated on a show of hands.
▪ Millions of trade unionists could not simply be represented by the casting of a block vote once a year.
PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
I'll knock your head/block off
be a chip off the old block
▪ "That daughter of yours has a great sense of humour." "Yes, I like to think she's a chip off the old block!"
building blocks
mental block
▪ Beware of becoming so fixated on this one position that you acquire a mental block against progressing further.
▪ Most of the blocks mentioned here are at the physical level, but the emotional and mental blocks are equally important.
▪ She developed a complete mental block against her pregnancy, and concealed it until four days before she went into labour.
▪ Spring focus: 2B Chuck Knoblauch claims he received help during the offseason with his mental block on routine throws.
▪ Their mocking faces caused a mental block - or a block somewhere else.
▪ With the uh, mental block.
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
▪ an apartment block
▪ Concrete blocks were used by most builders in the 1960s when constructing office buildings.
▪ His studios are on the tenth floor of an office block overlooking the river.
▪ It's three blocks to the store from here.
▪ Many of the families on our block are Hispanic-Americans.
▪ She lived three blocks away from me when we were kids.
▪ The fish were lying on huge blocks of ice to keep them cold.
▪ The house at Number 14 was replaced by a block of flats.
▪ The ice was cut into blocks and stored in a special shed.
▪ There's another new office block going up behind the station.
▪ To the east is a landscape of concrete tower blocks.
▪ We went for a walk around the block.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ Beware of becoming so fixated on this one position that you acquire a mental block against progressing further.
▪ But with a deli on every other block purveying all sorts of ethnic breads, l never baked a single loaf.
▪ During the first Cold War years, the capitalist block was indeed seeking the downfall of the war-exhausted Soviet Union.
▪ Moulded, splinter-proof cutting blocks, called Barboards, are also available.
▪ One stumbling block can be the kind of computer you own.
▪ Only from the windows of a derelict tower block squatted by women was there any deliberately hostile response.
▪ The Cannon halted rush-hour traffic as it rattled the windows of every car and skyscraper for blocks around.
II.verb
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ NOUN
action
▪ Each group is used for a different purpose, to inactivate bacteria or block the action of viruses, for example.
▪ Corin Redgrave has blocked out the key action vividly, indicating the threatening turmoil of war and revolt.
▪ Self-pity tends to block taking action that will be truly effective in reversing the downward spirals of primary and family diseases.
▪ He has hinted that he will block action on it indefinitely.
▪ Tried and trusted for generations, Drapolene's special formula won't block the action of disposable nappies.
bill
▪ Sadly, however, a few Opposition Members sought to block the Bill as it neared the end of its passage through Parliament.
▪ The vote came after majority Nationalist Party officials said today the party would use parliamentary procedures to block implementation of the bills.
▪ Mrs Cresson has already several times hinted that parliament may be dissolved if the conservative opposition tries to block government bills.
▪ Forty senators could block the bill because Senate rules require 60 votes to take up a conference committee report.
▪ The majority Nationalists introduced an alternative tax bill Tuesday to block the opposition bill.
▪ Dole often seemed frustrated and unsure of himself as Democrats blocked many of the bills he tried to move through Congress.
▪ And they say they don't believe Wellstone has the votes to sustain a filibuster to block the bill.
▪ But the blocked spending bills are pawns in a larger debate over the parties' competing seven-year balanced-budget plans.
entrance
▪ The travellers had already been thwarted by Gloucestershire police, who blocked entrances to a site in the Forest of Dean.
▪ The rubble had temporarily blocked the entrance to the cavern below the Horseshoe Falls.
▪ They have defied bailiffs by blocking the entrance to the building.
▪ Five were arrested on a charge of trying to block an entrance to the Treasury Building.
▪ The stone that blocked the entrance to the tomb was placed there for a purpose.
▪ In London, two skips and six barrels full of toxic waste blocked the front entrance to the environment building.
▪ They blocked the entrances in protest at what they claim is the unnecessary culling of badgers organised from the base.
▪ We arrived at one which blocked one of the entrances to Debenham.
escape
▪ He realized his mistake too late and when he turned back to the entrance Sabrina was already there, blocking his escape.
▪ Harsh fortresses of prickly pears and shard grass and dead branches block off all escape.
▪ Mr Letts tried to block their escape route and was mown down.
▪ They are now both in front of her on the road, blocking any escape.
▪ Swarms of wolf riders are often deployed ahead of the army's line of march to scout and block any route of escape.
▪ Behind them a huge force of Orcs moved to block their escape.
exit
▪ Two of them blocked her exit from the car park while the third smashed the car window to grab her handbag.
▪ People loaded with shopping shoved her aside: she was blocking the exit of a big supermarket.
▪ We had been coming on to the main road at about five miles an hour when three men had blocked our exit.
▪ It blocked the exit to the driveway.
▪ She quickly slipped ahead of the trolley pushers as one of them blocked the exit, manoeuvring his way through.
flow
▪ It can also cause cold spots along the bottom of the radiator, without completely blocking the flow.
▪ Strokes occur when blood vessels become clogged, blocking the flow of oxygen to an organ such as the brain.
▪ There is a filter on the inlet side of the fuel pump which may be partially blocked and obstructing fuel flow.
▪ Such an obstruction blocks the flow of bile from the gallbladder into the small intestine.
▪ The other is how to define their offence without blocking the flow of information from companies to investors.
▪ The Wall is designed to block the flow of information legitimately acquired by one department, to other departments.
light
▪ Archie suddenly loomed over me, his bloated Zeppelin figure blocking out what little light there was.
▪ You need something to block the light.
▪ So, again, suppose A is blocking up B's light.
▪ The sun floods in, young plants shoot upwards and the struggle starts anew as the winners block light from their inferiors.
▪ The house is kept in almost total darkness with a special membrane to block out ultra-violet light covering all the windows.
▪ The belly continued to grow, blocking out the light.
passage
▪ But senators opposed to the bases vowed to block its passage, calling it illegal.
▪ A high Grand Coulee Dam, however, would block their passage for ever.
▪ But this interruption also blocks the passage of ideas by shifting emphasis away from the signified.
▪ Mike Lieberman was trying to block its passage.
▪ A crowd had gathered, blocking the passage.
▪ Many of his sperm do not even try to fertilize her eggs but instead either attack other sperm or block their passage.
▪ This extreme version of the distrust of government has often been manipulated by the corporate sector to block passage of government regulation.
path
▪ He then walked out of the shop, despite the efforts of staff to block his path.
▪ Investigators said this included having some one fall in front of the candidate to block his path.
▪ The person or creature is blocking your path, so walk up and speak with it.
▪ When such costs are taken seriously, the resulting fear effectively blocks the path to minimizing and blaming.
▪ There are few trees, and fewer houses, to block its path.
▪ I could see the muzzle flashes in the tree line fifty yards away, which blocked our take-off path.
▪ She was moving slowly along the edge of the pavement when a car door swung open in front of her, blocking her path.
▪ Edwards had a dream in which many of his friends and relatives were blocking the path down the triple-jump runway.
plan
▪ Standing Room Only researchers can find no rules or regulations to block Newbon's revolutionary plan.
▪ But several problems, including a marked lack of support from other countries, are blocking the plan.
▪ South Pasadena residents repeatedly blocked plans to run the freeway through their city.
▪ I have had friends whose girlfriends' families actively blocked their marriage plans.
▪ His widow has blocked all plans to complete the story.
road
▪ So ferocious was the wind that the trees blew down and blocked the roads and railways.
▪ The accident, which left wreckage spread over a wide area, blocked the road causing severe traffic disruption.
▪ Wives of rocket forces troops in Siberia blocked the road to the missile silos in 1998 to protest unpaid wages.
▪ Suddenly, cars swerved to block the road, and dozens of security officers fanned out through the crowd.
▪ She heard the sound of another car behind her, and saw that she was blocking the narrow road.
▪ Even after the first attacks numerous destroyed, burning vehicles would have blocked the road.
▪ We reached to within 200m of the Centre until we were faced with lines of riot police blocking the roads.
▪ The crash at High Craigton, around 8am, blocked the road for several hours.
shot
▪ A police car emerged from the other alleyway and screeched to a halt ten yards in front of Whitlock, blocking his shot.
▪ He can make shots, he can block shots....
▪ His one chance came just before half-time when a defender's shins blocked his shot.
▪ He can go through a slump and still block shots.
▪ Six minutes from the end Murdoch again came to the visitors' rescue when he dived to block a shot from Hateley.
▪ McCoy returned a few minutes later and quickly hit two mid-range jumpers and blocked two Bryant Boston shots in succession.
▪ Five minutes later Hislop blocked a shot from Andy Cole, and Sheringham wafted the rebound over the bar.
▪ And any time the Cardinal ventured into the lane, McCoy was there to block or alter shots.
street
▪ Maintaining a bella figura at all costs can cause problems greater than a partially blocked street.
▪ There will also be close, searched boats, blocked streets and all the other inconveniences of a major political convention.
▪ They had blocked the street off, rather as if an armed siege was in progress.
▪ In the Santa Cruz neighborhood, witnesses said a building several stories high collapsed, blocking the street.
▪ Barricades blocked the main streets and were erected in many neighbourhoods.
▪ A large delivery van was almost blocking the narrow street, its high sides nearly shutting off the daylight from her windows.
▪ The buildings block out the street lighting.
view
▪ They block the rear view of the road and make our quest to recover the tabs all the more difficult.
▪ For a few seconds the squirrel was behind a few pine twigs that were blocking its view towards me.
▪ Last night the piano had blocked his view, but he knew roughly where to look.
▪ Perches should be placed so that the birds can see over a wide section without anything blocking their view.
▪ Her main fun was watching television, and she threw things at people who blocked her view.
▪ The soldiers so blocked spectators' view that the onlookers cheered, thinking the president was in the carriage.
▪ The huge building across the street blocked my view of the horizon.
▪ Yoyo stood before both of them, blocking their view of the soldiers in helicopters landing amid silenced gun reports and explosions.
way
▪ The chaprassi spotted the newcomer and stood up, blocking the way to the offices within.
▪ A Secret Service agent blocked his way.
▪ The first trolley was still stuck, its owner now flustered, aware that he was blocking everyone else's way.
▪ Two uprooted palm trees blocked their way at the foot of the stairs.
▪ Moss wiped their faces as they fought the live-oak branches that blocked their way.
▪ Two black guys block our way.
▪ The desire to be right is a stumbling block in a way.
■ VERB
threaten
▪ Secretions which block or threaten to block his airway have to be removed by suction.
▪ Republicans had threatened to block consideration of the Castle-Tanner substitute, authored primarily by Rep.
▪ Some local politicians, led by Mr Antonovich, are threatening to block the necessary implementing regulations.
▪ Yesterday the border farmers threatened to block the council scheme unless their own scheme was sanctioned.
try
▪ Mr Letts tried to block their escape route and was mown down.
▪ Mike Lieberman was trying to block its passage.
▪ Tom was one of several demonstrators who tried to block round a horsebox at the end of the meeting.
▪ We are going to try to block them in a variety of ways and keep them guessing.
▪ Razdolnoye's residents tried to block the Trans-Siberian railway line, and demonstrators filed through Vladivostok.
▪ The Boyle goons tried to block the door or stuff cards into their hands.
▪ Carla would curl up on his lap and hold her hands over her ears desperately trying to block out their arguing.
▪ Daily protests involving hundreds of arrests were made as blacks tried to block the trucks.
PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
be a chip off the old block
▪ "That daughter of yours has a great sense of humour." "Yes, I like to think she's a chip off the old block!"
building blocks
mental block
▪ Beware of becoming so fixated on this one position that you acquire a mental block against progressing further.
▪ Most of the blocks mentioned here are at the physical level, but the emotional and mental blocks are equally important.
▪ She developed a complete mental block against her pregnancy, and concealed it until four days before she went into labour.
▪ Spring focus: 2B Chuck Knoblauch claims he received help during the offseason with his mental block on routine throws.
▪ Their mocking faces caused a mental block - or a block somewhere else.
▪ With the uh, mental block.
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
▪ a blocked currency
▪ A big truck had turned over on its side, and it was blocking the road.
▪ Britain has threatened to block new EU legislation on human rights.
▪ Hundreds of protesters blocked the entrance to the President's palace.
▪ The accident has blocked two lanes of traffic on the freeway.
▪ The city council blocked the idea for a new shopping mall.
▪ The deal was blocked by the chairman, who was unwilling to commit so much company money to a risky investment.
▪ The sink is blocked again.
▪ The view was blocked by two ugly high-rise apartment buildings.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ But you may find the road blocked.
▪ Drugs that block acetylcholine interfere with memory.
▪ Having blocked two attacking techniques, the defender counters with a double punch to his opponent's face.
▪ Some small villages in the northern Andes were left isolated as roads were blocked by slides.
▪ Which of these have blocked your growth?
Wikipedia

Block

Block may refer to:

Block (district subdivision)

A block is an administrative division of some South Asian countries.

Block (data storage)

In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), a block, sometimes called a physical record, is a sequence of bytes or bits, usually containing some whole number of records, having a maximum length, a block size. Data thus structured are said to be blocked. The process of putting data into blocks is called blocking, while deblocking is the process of extracting data from blocks. Blocked data is normally stored in a data buffer and read or written a whole block at a time. Blocking reduces the overhead and speeds up the handling of the data-stream. For some devices such as magnetic tape and CKD disk devices blocking reduces the amount of external storage required for the data. Blocking is almost universally employed when storing data to 9-track magnetic tape, to NAND flash memory, and to rotating media such as floppy disks, hard disks, and optical discs.

Most file systems are based on a block device, which is a level of abstraction for the hardware responsible for storing and retrieving specified blocks of data, though the block size in file systems may be a multiple of the physical block size. This leads to space inefficiency due to internal fragmentation, since file lengths are often not integer multiples of block size, and thus the last block of a file may remain partially empty. This will create slack space, which averages half a block per file. Some newer file systems attempt to solve this through techniques called block suballocation and tail merging.

Block storage is normally abstracted by a file system or database management system (DBMS) for use by applications and end users. The physical or logical volumes accessed via block I/O may be devices internal to a server, directly attached via SCSI or Fibre Channel, or distant devices accessed via a storage area network (SAN) using a protocol such as iSCSI, or AoE. DBMSes often use their own block I/O for improved performance and recoverability as compared to layering the DBMS on top of a file system.

Block (programming)

In computer programming, a block or code block is a section of code which is grouped together. Blocks consist of one or more declarations and statements. A programming language that permits the creation of blocks, including blocks nested within other blocks, is called a block-structured programming language. Blocks are fundamental to structured programming, where control structures are formed from blocks.

The function of blocks in programming is to enable groups of statements to be treated as if they were one statement, and to narrow the lexical scope of variables, procedures and functions declared in a block so that they do not conflict with variables having the same name used elsewhere in a program for different purposes. In a block-structured programming language, the names of variables and other objects such as procedures which are declared in outer blocks are visible inside other inner blocks, unless they are shadowed by an object of the same name.

Block (sailing)

In sailing, a block is a single or multiple pulley. One or a number of sheaves are enclosed in an assembly between cheeks or chocks. In use, a block is fixed to the end of a line, to a spar, or to a surface. A line (rope) is reeved through the sheaves, and maybe through one or more matching blocks at some far end, to make up a tackle.

The purchase of a tackle refers to its mechanical advantage. In general the more sheaves in the blocks that make up a tackle, the higher its mechanical advantage. The matter is slightly complicated by the fact that every tackle has a working end where the final run of rope leaves the last sheave. More mechanical advantage can be obtained if this end is attached to the moving load rather than the fixed end of the tackle.

There are various types of blocks that are used in sailing. Some blocks are used to increase mechanical advantage and others are used simply to change the direction of a line. A ratchet block turns freely when a line is pulled in one direction but does not turn the other direction, although the line may slip past the sheave. This kind of block makes a loaded line easier to hold by hand, and is sometimes used on smaller boats for lines like main and jib sheets that are frequently adjusted.

blocks2.JPG|Various types of blocks of both wood and metal found on the 16th century ship Mary Rose on block.jpg|A bird perched near a wooden block 57C block.jpg|A modern single block made of stainless steel and reinforced plastic. The ball bearing is made of Delrin ( polyoxymethylene)

Block (basketball)

In basketball, a block or blocked shot occurs when a defensive player legally deflects a field goal attempt from an offensive player. The defender is not allowed to make contact with the offensive player's hand (unless it is in contact with the ball) or a foul is called. In order to be legal, the block must occur while the shot is traveling upward or at its apex. A deflected field goal that is made does not count as a blocked shot and simply counts as a successful field goal attempt for shooter plus the points awarded to the shooting team. Every successful blocked shot is counted as a missed field goal attempt for the shooter. Also, on a shooting foul, a blocked shot cannot be awarded or counted, even if the player who deflected the field goal attempt is different from the player who committed the foul. If the ball is heading downward when the defender hits it, it is ruled as goaltending and counts as a made basket. Goaltending is also called if the block is made after the ball bounces on the backboard ( NFHS excepted; the NCAA also used this rule until the 2009–10 season).

Nicknames for blocked shots include "rejections," "stuffs," "bushed", "fudged", or notably "double-fudged" (two-handed blocks), "facials," "swats," "denials," and "packs." Blocked shots were first officially recorded in the NBA during the 1973–74 season.

Largely due to their height and position near the basket, centers and power forwards tend to record the most blocks, but shorter players with good jumping ability can also be blockers, an example being Dwyane Wade, the shortest player, at 6'4", to record 100 blocked shots in a single season. A player with the ability to block shots can be a positive asset to a team's defense, as they can make it difficult for opposing players to shoot near the basket and by keeping the basketball in play, as opposed to swatting it out of bounds, a blocked shot can lead to a fast break, a skill Bill Russell was notable for. To be a good shot-blocker, a player needs great court sense and timing, and good height or jumping ability. One tactic is that a shot-blocker can intimidate opponents to alter their shots, resulting in a miss.

Block (telecommunications)

In telecommunications a block is one of:

  • A group of bits or digits that is transmitted as a unit and that may be encoded for error-control purposes.
  • A string of records, words, or characters, that for technical or logical purposes are treated as a unit. Blocks (a) are separated by interblock gaps, (b) are delimited by an end-of-block signal, and (c) may contain one or more records. A block is usually subjected to some type of block processing, such as multidimensional parity checking, associated with it.

A block transfer attempt is a coordinated sequence of user and telecommunication system activities undertaken to effect transfer of an individual block from a source user to a destination user.

A block transfer attempt begins when the first bit of the block crosses the functional interface between the source user and the telecommunication system. A block transfer attempt ends either in successful block transfer or in block transfer failure.

Successful block transfer is the transfer of a correct, nonduplicate, user information block between the source user and intended destination user. Successful block transfer occurs when the last bit of the transferred block crosses the functional interface between the telecommunications system and the intended destination user. Successful block transfer can only occur within a defined maximum block transfer time after initiation of a block transfer attempt.

Block (permutation group theory)

In mathematics and group theory, a block system for the action of a groupG on a setX is a partition of X that is G-invariant. In terms of the associated equivalence relation on X, G-invariance means that

x ~ y implies gx ~ gy

for all g in G and all x, y in X. The action of G on X determines a natural action of G on any block system for X.

Each element of the block system is called a block. A block can be characterized as a subsetB of X such that for all g in G, either

  • gB = B (g fixes B) or
  • gBB = ∅ (g moves B entirely).

If B is a block then gB is a block for any g in G. If G acts transitively on X, then the set {gB | gG} is a block system on X.

The trivial partitions into singleton sets and the partition into one set X itself are block systems. A transitive G-set X is said to be primitive if contains no nontrivial partitions.

Block (meteorology)

Blocks in meteorology are large-scale patterns in the atmospheric pressure field that are nearly stationary, effectively “blocking” or redirecting migratory cyclones. They are also known as blocking highs or blocking anticyclones. These blocks can remain in place for several days or even weeks, causing the areas affected by them to have the same kind of weather for an extended period of time (e.g. precipitation for some areas, clear skies for others). In the Northern Hemisphere, extended blocking occurs most frequently in the spring over the eastern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

Block (Internet)

On the Internet, a block (also sometimes referred to as a banhammer) is a technical measure intended to restrict access to information or resources. Blocking may be implemented by the owners of computers using software. Some countries, including China and Singapore, block access to certain news information. In the United States, the Children's Internet Protection Act requires schools receiving federal funded discount rates for Internet access to install software that blocks obscene content, pornography, and, where applicable, content “harmful to minors”.

Blocking may also refer to denying access to a web server based on the IP address of the client machine. In certain websites, including social networks such as Facebook or editable databases like Wikimedia projects, users can apply blocks on other users (based in either IP number or account) to prevent them from performing certain actions. Blocks of this kind may occur for several reasons and produce different effects: in social networks, users can unrestrictedly block other users, typically by preventing them from sending messages or viewing the blocker's information or profile.

Block (periodic table)

A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. The term appears to have been first used by Charles Janet. The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same atomic orbital type. Each block is named after its characteristic orbital; thus, the blocks are:

  • s-block
  • p-block
  • d-block
  • f-block
  • g-block (hypothetical)

The block names (s, p, d, f and g) are derived from the spectroscopic notation for the associated atomic orbitals: sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental, and then g which follows f in the alphabet.

The following is the order for filling the "subshell" orbitals, according to the Aufbau principle, which also gives the linear order of the "blocks" (as atomic number increases) in the periodic table:

1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, ...

For discussion of the nature of why the energies of the blocks naturally appear in this order in complex atoms, see atomic orbital and electron configuration.

The "periodic" nature of the filling of orbitals, as well as emergence of the s, p, d and f "blocks" is more obvious, if this order of filling is given in matrix form, with increasing principal quantum numbers starting the new rows ("periods") in the matrix. Then, each subshell (composed of the first two quantum numbers) is repeated as many times as required for each pair of electrons it may contain. The result is a compressed periodic table, with each entry representing two successive elements:

1s 2s 2p 2p 2p 3s 3p 3p 3p 4s 3d 3d 3d 3d 3d 4p 4p 4p 5s 4d 4d 4d 4d 4d 5p 5p 5p 6s 4f 4f 4f 4f 4f 4f 4f 5d 5d 5d 5d 5d 6p 6p 6p 7s 5f 5f 5f 5f 5f 5f 5f 6d 6d 6d 6d 6d 7p 7p 7p

Block (chess)

A block is a defensive tactic in chess in response to an attack, consisting of interposing a piece between the opponent's attacking piece and the piece being attacked. This type of blocking will only work if the attacking piece is a type that can move linearly an indefinite number of squares such as a queen, rook, or bishop and there is at least one empty square in the line between the attacking and attacked piece. Blocking is not an option when the attacking piece is directly adjacent to the piece it is attacking, or when the attacking piece is a knight (because knights "jump over other pieces" and cannot be blocked). When an opponent's attack on a piece is blocked, the blocking piece is to some extent pinned, either relatively or absolutely, until a future move by either side allows it to be unpinned.

A check on a king by an opponent's queen, rook, or bishop can sometimes be blocked by moving a piece to a square in line in between the opponent's checking piece and the checked king. Note that the blocking piece is then absolutely pinned to the king by the attacking piece.

Another type of interposing in chess can involve placing a piece between two opponent's pieces where one of those pieces is protecting the other, or they are both protecting each other. This chess tactic can be called interference.

Block (rural Australia)

Block is an Australian term for a small agricultural landholding. Block settlement has been used by Governments to encourage decentralization and during financial depressions to give families of unemployed workers an opportunity (frequently illusory) to become primary producers. It may also refer to a lifestyle choice or "hobby farm" for those with an independent source of income.

In parts of Australia, parcels of land of around were allocated by Government to working-class men at nominal rent during the depression of the 1890s with the object of giving them work and, potentially, a source of income. Some eventually prospered, but those on marginal land were doomed to failure. Proponents of the "block system" included George Witherage Cotton. Holders of such allotments were referred to as "blockers" or "blockies".

The Collaborative International Dictionary

Block

Block \Block\ (bl[o^]k), n. [OE. blok; cf. F. bloc (fr. OHG.), D. & Dan. blok, Sw. & G. block, OHG. bloch. There is also an OHG. bloch, biloh; bi by + the same root as that of E. lock. Cf. Block, v. t., Blockade, and see Lock.]

  1. A piece of wood more or less bulky; a solid mass of wood, stone, etc., usually with one or more plane, or approximately plane, faces; as, a block on which a butcher chops his meat; a block by which to mount a horse; children's playing blocks, etc.

    Now all our neighbors' chimneys smoke, And Christmas blocks are burning.
    --Wither.

    All her labor was but as a block Left in the quarry.
    --Tennyson.

  2. The solid piece of wood on which condemned persons lay their necks when they are beheaded.

    Noble heads which have been brought to the block.
    --E. Everett.

  3. The wooden mold on which hats, bonnets, etc., are shaped. Hence: The pattern or shape of a hat.

    He wears his faith but as the fashion of his hat; it ever changes with the next block.
    --Shak.

  4. A large or long building divided into separate houses or shops, or a number of houses or shops built in contact with each other so as to form one building; a row of houses or shops.

  5. A square, or portion of a city inclosed by streets, whether occupied by buildings or not.

    The new city was laid out in rectangular blocks, each block containing thirty building lots. Such an average block, comprising 282 houses and covering nine acres of ground, exists in Oxford Street.
    --Lond. Quart. Rev.

  6. A grooved pulley or sheave incased in a frame or shell which is provided with a hook, eye, or strap, by which it may be attached to an object. It is used to change the direction of motion, as in raising a heavy object that can not be conveniently reached, and also, when two or more such sheaves are compounded, to change the rate of motion, or to exert increased force; -- used especially in the rigging of ships, and in tackles.

  7. (Falconry) The perch on which a bird of prey is kept.

  8. Any obstruction, or cause of obstruction; a stop; a hindrance; an obstacle; -- also called blockage; as, a block in the way; a block in an artery; a block in a nerve; a block in a biochemical pathway.

  9. A piece of box or other wood for engravers' work.

  10. (Print.) A piece of hard wood (as mahogany or cherry) on which a stereotype or electrotype plate is mounted to make it type high.

  11. A blockhead; a stupid fellow; a dolt. [Obs.]

    What a block art thou !
    --Shak.

  12. A section of a railroad where the block system is used. See Block system, below.

  13. In Australia, one of the large lots into which public land, when opened to settlers, is divided by the government surveyors.

  14. (Cricket)

    1. The position of a player or bat when guarding the wicket.

    2. A block hole.

    3. The popping crease. [R.]

  15. a number of individual items sold as a unit; as, a block of airline ticketes; a block of hotel rooms; a block of stock.

  16. the length of one side of a city block[5], traversed along any side; as, to walk three blocks ahead and turn left at the corner.

  17. a halt in a mental process, especially one due to stress, memory lapse, confusion, etc.; as, a writer's block; to have a block in remembering a name.

  18. (computers) a quantity of binary-encoded information transferred, or stored, as a unit to, from, or on a data storage device; as, to divide a disk into 512-byte blocks.

  19. (computers) a number of locations in a random-access memory allocated to storage of specific data; as, to allocate a block of 1024 bytes for the stack. A block of shares (Stock Exchange), a large number of shares in a stock company, sold in a lump. --Bartlett. Block printing.

    1. A mode of printing (common in China and Japan) from engraved boards by means of a sheet of paper laid on the linked surface and rubbed with a brush.
      --S. W. Williams.

    2. A method of printing cotton cloth and paper hangings with colors, by pressing them upon an engraved surface coated with coloring matter.

      Block system on railways, a system by which the track is divided into sections of three or four miles, and trains are so run by the guidance of electric signals that no train enters a section or block before the preceding train has left it.

      Back blocks, Australian pastoral country which is remote from the seacoast or from a river.

Block

Block \Block\ (bl[o^]k), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blocked (bl[o^]kt); p. pr. & vb. n. Blocking.] [Cf. F. bloquer, fr. bloc block. See Block, n.]

  1. To obstruct so as to prevent passage or progress; to prevent passage from, through, or into, by obstructing the way; -- used both of persons and things; -- often followed by up; as, to block up a road or harbor; to block an entrance.

    With moles . . . would block the port.
    --Rowe.

    A city . . . besieged and blocked about.
    --Milton.

  2. To secure or support by means of blocks; to secure, as two boards at their angles of intersection, by pieces of wood glued to each.

  3. To shape on, or stamp with, a block; as, to block a hat.

  4. to cause (any activity) to halt by creating an obstruction; as, to block a nerve impulse; to block a biochemical reaction with a drug.

    To block out, to begin to reduce to shape; to mark out roughly; to lay out; to outline; as, to block out a plan.

WordNet

block

  1. v. render unsuitable for passage; "block the way"; "barricade the streets"; "stop the busy road" [syn: barricade, blockade, stop, block off, block up, bar]

  2. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of; "His brother blocked him at every turn" [syn: obstruct, blockade, hinder, stymie, stymy, embarrass]

  3. stop from happening or developing; "Block his election"; "Halt the process" [syn: stop, halt, kibosh]

  4. interfere with or prevent the reception of signals; "Jam the Voice of America"; "block the signals emitted by this station" [syn: jam]

  5. run on a block system; "block trains"

  6. interrupt the normal function of by means of anesthesia; "block a nerve"; "block a muscle"

  7. shut out from view or get in the way so as to hide from sight; "The thick curtain blocked the action on the stage"; "The trees obstruct my view of the mountains" [syn: obstruct]

  8. stamp or emboss a title or design on a book with a block; "block the book cover"

  9. obstruct; "My nose is all stuffed"; "Her arteries are blocked" [syn: stuff, lug, choke up] [ant: unstuff]

  10. block passage through; "obstruct the path" [syn: obstruct, obturate, impede, occlude, jam, close up] [ant: free]

  11. support, secure, or raise with a block; "block a plate for printing"; "block the wheels of a car"

  12. impede the movement of (an opponent or a ball); "block an attack" [syn: parry, deflect]

  13. be unable to remember; "I'm drawing a blank"; "You are blocking the name of your first wife!" [syn: forget, blank out, draw a blank] [ant: remember]

  14. shape by using a block; "Block a hat"; "block a garment"

  15. shape into a block or blocks; "block the graphs so one can see the results clearly"

  16. prohibit the conversion or use of (assets); "Blocked funds"; "Freeze the assets of this hostile government" [syn: freeze, immobilize, immobilise] [ant: unblock, unblock]

block

  1. n. a solid piece of something (usually having flat rectangular sides); "the pyramids were built with large stone blocks"

  2. a rectangular area in a city surrounded by streets and usually containing several buildings; "he lives in the next block" [syn: city block]

  3. a three-dimensional shape with six square or rectangular sides [syn: cube]

  4. a number or quantity of related things dealt with as a unit; "he reserved a large block of seats"; "he held a large block of the company's stock"

  5. housing in a large building that is divided into separate units; "there is a block of classrooms in the west wing"

  6. (computer science) a sector or group of sectors that function as the smallest data unit permitted; "since blocks are often defined as a single sector, the terms `block' and `sector' are sometimes used interchangeably"

  7. an inability to remember or think of something you normally can do; often caused by emotional tension; "I knew his name perfectly well but I had a temporary block" [syn: mental block]

  8. a simple machine consisting of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope [syn: pulley, pulley-block]

  9. a metal casting containing the cylinders and cooling ducts of an engine; "the engine had to be replaced because the block was cracked" [syn: engine block, cylinder block]

  10. an obstruction in a pipe or tube; "we had to call a plumber to clear out the blockage in the drainpipe" [syn: blockage, closure, occlusion, stop, stoppage]

  11. a platform from which an auctioneer sells; "they put their paintings on the block" [syn: auction block]

  12. (American football) the act of obstructing someone's path with your body; "he threw a rolling block into the line backer" [syn: blocking, interference]

Wiktionary

block

n. 1 A substantial, often approximately cuboid, piece of any substance. 2 A group of urban lots of property, several acres in extent, not crossed by public streets. 3 A residential building consisting of flats. vb. 1 (context transitive English) To fill (something) so that it is not possible to pass. 2 (context transitive English) To prevent (something or someone) from passing. 3 (context transitive English) To prevent (something from happening or someone from doing something). 4 (context transitive sports English) To impede an opponent. 5 (context transitive theater English) To specify the positions and movements of the actors. 6 (context transitive cricket English) To hit with a block. 7 (context intransitive cricket English) To play a block shot. 8 (context transitive English) To disable communication via telephone, instant messaging, etc., with an undesirable someone. 9 (context computing intransitive English) To wait. 10 (context transitive English) To stretch or mould (a knitted item, a hat, etc.) into the desired shape.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

block

"obstruct," 1590s, from French bloquer "to block, stop up," from Old French bloc (see block (n.)). Meaning "to make smooth or to give shape on a block" is from 1620s. Stage and theater sense is from 1961. Sense in cricket is from 1772; in U.S. football from 1889. Related: Blocked; blocking.

block

"solid piece," c.1300, from Old French bloc "log, block" of wood (13c.), via Middle Dutch bloc "trunk of a tree" or Old High German bloh, from a common Germanic source, from PIE *bhlugo-, from *bhelg- "a thick plank, beam" (see balk).\n

\nMeaning "mould for a hat" is from 1570s. Slang sense of "head" is from 1630s. Extended sense of "obstruction" is first recorded 1640s. In cricket from 1825; in U.S. football from 1912. The meaning in city block is 1796, from the notion of a "compact mass" of buildings; slang meaning "fashionable promenade" is 1869.\n\nBLOCK. A term applied in America to a square mass of houses included between four streets. It is a very useful one.

[Bartlett]

Usage examples of "block".

As they reached the broad open space where I had had my first disquieting glimpse of the moonlit water I could see them plainly only a block away--and was horrified by the bestial abnormality of their faces and the doglike sub-humanness of their crouching gait.

Oswald Brunies, the strutting, candy-sucking teacher -- a monument will be erected to him -- to him with magnifying glass on elastic, with sticky bag in sticky coat pocket, to him who collected big stones and little stones, rare pebbles, preferably mica gneiss -- muscovy biotite -- quartz, feldspar, and hornblende, who picked up pebbles, examined them, rejected or kept them, to him the Big Playground of the Conradinum was not an abrasive stumbling block but a lasting invitation to scratch about with the tip of his shoe after nine rooster steps.

Holding back as they reached a less-frequented street, Harry saw Alban enter the Acme Florists, which was near the middle of the block.

Cocaine has a high addictive potential because of the speed with which it blocks the dopamine transporters.

Dostoevsky, we may adduce from such words, could well have increased his sense of guilt by blocking the possibility of turning angrily and self-defensively against an accusatory judge.

Adikor, speaking directly to the adjudicator, before the orbiting Bolbay blocked his line of sight again.

The train steamed into the advancing Boer army, was fired upon, tried to escape, found the rails blocked behind it, and upset.

These relics included an enclosure of coral blocks marking the outlines of a rectangular building which, Emory and Finney considered, showed similarities to some Tongan structures, and basalt adzes which must have come from a high volcanic island, since basalt does not occur naturally on low atolls.

He remembered the instructor at the air club speak about a Civil War airman who had short legs and had small blocks of wood attached to the pedals of his machine in order to be able to reach them.

Life of Caxton, the reader will find interesting examples of the earliest woodcut blocks illustrating the quaint and rare tomes issued by the Almonry, Westminster, also at Oxford.

Sisoka must have followed me to Amicus to block my attempt to recruit you.

She smelled an ammoniac odor, and saw a huge midnight-blue form wide and tall enough to block the corridor.

Daniel took a turn of the rope end around his good shoulder and anchored it as the rest of the team reached out, seized the swinging block and hauled it onto the trestle.

In an underwater world, the first one to hear the other side was usually the winnerto help keep sound waves from bouncing off the steel hull of the ship, resilient-compound blocks had been attached to her hull as an anechoic coating.

At the eastern side of the transept an arch opens out into an apsidal chapel, but pews block up the entrance.