Ard, ARD, Ards or ARDS may refer to:
ARD (full name: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Consortium of public broadcasters in Germany, details below at name) is a joint organisation of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters. It was founded in 1950 in West Germany to represent the common interests of the new, decentralised, post-war broadcasting services – in particular the introduction of a joint television network.
The ARD is the world's largest public broadcaster, with a budget of €6.5 billion and 20,616.5 employees. The budget comes primarily from the licence fees every household, every company and even every public institution like city governments are required to pay. For an ordinary household the fee is currently €17.50 per month. Households living on welfare don't have to pay the fee. The fees are not collected directly by the ARD, but by the Beitragsservice (formerly known as Gebühreneinzugszentrale GEZ), a common organization of the ARD member broadcasters, the second public TV broadcaster ZDF, and Deutschlandradio.
ARD maintains and operates a national television network, called Das Erste ("The First") to differentiate it from ZDF, a.k.a. "das Zweite" ("The Second"), which started 1963, as a separate public TV-broadcaster. The ARD network began broadcasting on 31 October 1954 under the name of Deutsches Fernsehen ("German Television"), becoming Erstes Deutsches Fernsehen ("First German Television") with a corporate redesign in 1984; it adopted its current name (Das Erste) in 1994. ARD's programs are aired over its own terrestrial broadcast network, as well as via cable, satellite and IPTV.
ARD also produces three free-to-air digital channels ( EinsFestival, EinsPlus and Tagesschau24) and participates in the production of cable/satellite channels Phoenix (current events, news and documentaries), KI.KA (children's programmes), 3sat (cultural/traditional programming) and arte (Franco-German cultural programming).
ARD's programming is practiced within Germany's local communities, where its regional members (see also Institutions and member organizations) ( Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR), Hessischer Rundfunk (HR), Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR), Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR), Radio Bremen, Rundfunk Berlin–Brandenburg (RBB), Saarländischer Rundfunk (SR), Südwestrundfunk (SWR) and Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR)) operate 54 regional and local radio stations and seven regional TV networks, some of which split further during certain parts of the day. International broadcaster Deutsche Welle is also a member of ARD.
Single-handled bow ard: (1) yoke, (2) draft-pole, (3) draft-beam, (4) stilt, (5) share]] [[ marks 2.JPG|right|thumb|
Score marks (ard marks) from a rip ard on a boulder in a clearance cairn.]]
The ard, ard plough, or scratch plough is a simple light plough without a mouldboard. It is symmetrical on either side of its line of draft and is fitted with a symmetrical share that traces a shallow furrow but does not invert the soil. It began to be replaced in most of Europe by the carruca turnplough from the 7th century.
In its simplest form it resembles a hoe, consisting of a draft-pole (either composite or a single piece) pierced with a nearly vertical, wooden, spiked head (or stock) which is dragged through the soil by draft animals and very rarely by people. The ard-head is at one end a stilt (handle) for steering and at the other a share (cutting blade) which gouges the surface ground. More sophisticated models have a composite pole, where the section attached to the head is called the draft-beam, and the share may be made of stone or iron. Some have a cross-bar for handles or two separate stilts for handles (two-handled ard). The share comes in two basic forms: a socket share slipped over the nose of the ard-head; and the tang share fitted into a groove where it is held with a clamp on the wooden head. Additionally, a slender protruding chisel (foreshare) can be fitted over the top of the mainshare.
- Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China, vol. 6 (1984; reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004), 138.↩
init. Acid Reflux Disease
Usage examples of "ard".
Mac Ard was still looking at her, and Aldwoman Pearce turned in her chair to glance back also.
Jenna got back, Mac Ard was sitting at the table with a plate of boiled potatoes, mutton, and bread, and a mug of tea in front of him.
Mac Ard had turned in his chair, the legs scraping across the floorboArds.
Mac Ard, and of the cold lightning that flared from it and the red-haired man.
She could feel her cheeks getting hot, and her mouth opened as if she wanted to speak, but she forced herself to remain silent as Mac Ard continued to stare.
Jenna wondered at that, but then Mac Ard clucked once at Conhal, and the horse started walking, startling Jenna.
Maeve had always told her how Niall, her da, was strong and protective and loving, and she could imagine that this Mac Ard might be the same way.
Tiarna Mac Ard pushed open the door of the tavern so that Maeve and Jenna could enter, then, as quickly, the chatter resumed again as everyone pretended not to notice that the tiarna had brought company with him.
She was smiling at Mac Ard, and if she remained a careful step away from him, she also kept her gaze on him.
Mac Ard was leaning towArd Maeve, his arms on the table, his hands curled around a mug of the ale, and her mam was talking.
No one actually glanced back to Tiarna Mat Ard, but everyone waited to see if he would speak first.
Mac Ard, after hearing the first few notes, sat back in his chair with an audible cough of surprise and admiration, shaking his head and stroking his beArd.
Maeve seemed strangely interested in the intricacies of the Mac Ard genealogy and asked several questions, but Jenna was bored.
She saw the horse and rider emerge from under the trees: Tiarna Mac Ard, astride Conhal.
Mac Ard let the silence linger, and Jenna forced herself to stay quiet, though she could see him waiting for her to elaborate.