Alcaeus may refer to:
- Alcaeus (comic poet), a writer of ten plays of the Old Comedy.
- Alcaeus (mythology), one of several figures of this name in Greek mythology
- 12607 Alcaeus, a main belt asteroid
- Alcaeus of Messene, a Greek epigrammatist of the late 3rd/early 2nd century BC
- Alcaeus of Mytilene, a lyric poet of the archaic period
- Alcaeus and Philiscus (2nd-century BC), two Epicurean philosophers expelled from Rome in either 173 BC or 154 BC
In Greek mythology, Alcaeus or Alkaios was the name of a number of different people:
- Alcaeus, a son of Perseus and Andromeda, was married to either Astydameia, the daughter of Pelops and Hippodamia, or Laonome, daughter of Guneus, or else Hipponome, daughter of Menoeceus, by whom he became the father of Amphitryon, Anaxo and Perimede.
- Alcaeus, the original name of Heracles (according to Diodorus Siculus), which was given to him on account of his descent from Alcaeus, the son of Perseus mentioned above.
- Alcaeus, a son of Heracles by a female slave of Iardanus, from whom the dynasty of the Heraclids in Lydia were believed to be descended. Diodorus Siculus writes that this son of Heracles is named " Cleolaus".
- Alcaeus, a general of Rhadamanthus, according to Diodorus Siculus, who presented him with the island of Paros. The Bibliotheca relates that he was a son of Androgeus (the son of Minos and Pasiphaë) and brother of Sthenelus, and that when Heracles, on his expedition to fetch the girdle of Ares, which was in the possession of the queen of the Amazons, arrived at Paros, some of his companions were slain by the sons of Minos. Heracles, in his anger, slew all the descendants of Minos except Alcaeus and Sthenelus, whom he took with him, and to whom he afterwards gave the island of Thasus as their home.
- Alcaeus, son of Margasus and Phyllis, a Carian ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War. He was killed by Meges.
Alcaeus (comic poet)
Alcaeus , the son of Miccus, was an Athenian comic poet who wrote ten plays. His comedies marked the transition between Old Comedy and Middle Comedy. In 388 BC, his play Pasiphae was awarded the fifth (i.e. last) place prize. The titles of seven other plays still exist, along with forty fragments altogether, most of which suggest that he worked mainly in mythological subjects.
Titles of his plays:
- Adephai Moicheuomenai ("The Adulterous Sisters")
- Hieros Gamos ("Holy Marriage")
- Komadotragodia ("Comedo-Tragedy")
- Palaistra (" Palaestra")
- Pasiphae (See above)
Fabricius mentions another Alcaeus, a tragedian. Some scholars thought that they were the same person, and calling Alcaeus "a tragedian" rose from an erroneous reading of his title "comoedo-tragoedia".