Aktau (, Qazaq Latin Script: Aqtaw - White Mountain) was known as Shevchenko from 1964 to 1991. Its current name means "white mountain" in Kazakh, which may be due to its cliffs that overlook the Caspian. Its former name was given due to the eponymous Ukrainian poet's period of exile in the area. It is the second largest city in western Kazakhstan and the country's main seaport on the Caspian Sea. It is located on the Mangyshlak Peninsula and is the capital of Mangystau Region. Population:
Aktau is known for its unique block address system. Almost all streets inside the city have no names, and addresses in Aktau generally consist of three numbers: the district number (also known as micro-region/micro-district/block), the building number, and the apartment number. This is because Aktau was originally planned as a camp for the workers of the oil industry.